Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France
Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France

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PubMed | CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit and Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2016

Constructed wetlands have been suggested as pesticide risk mitigation measures. Yet, in many agricultural areas, ponds or shallow lakes are already present and may contribute to the control of non-point source contamination by pesticides. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of extensively managed barrage fishponds (n=3) on the dissolved concentrations of 100 pesticides in headwater streams over the course of a year. Among the 100 pesticides, 50 different substances were detected upstream and 48 downstream. Highest measured concentration upstream was 26.5g/L (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA) and 5.19g/L (isoproturon) downstream. Fishponds were found to reduce peak exposure levels as high pesticide concentrations (defined here as1g/L) generally decreased by more than 90% between upstream and downstream sampling sites. The measured concentrations in the investigated streams were compared to laboratory toxicity data for standard test organisms (algae, invertebrates and fish) using the toxic unit approach. When considering the threshold levels set by the European Union within the first tier risk assessment procedure for pesticide registration (commission regulation (EU) N 546/2011), regulatory threshold exceedances were observed for 22 pesticides upstream from fishponds and for 9 pesticides downstream. Therefore, the investigated barrage fishponds contributed to the reduction of pesticide peak concentrations and potential risk of adverse effects for downstream ecosystems.


Bach C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Bach C.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | Dauchy X.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Chagnon M.-C.,University of Burgundy | Etienne S.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute
Water Research | Year: 2012

A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.).Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Bach C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Bach C.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | Dauchy X.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Severin I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60 °C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dauchy X.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Boiteux V.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Rosin C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Munoz J.-F.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

In this study, the concentrations of 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in effluents of a fluorotelomer polymer manufacturing plant and its wastewater treatment plant. A 50-fold increase between the two effluents mass flows was observed. The water quality of two drinking water treatment plants located downstream at 15 and 25 km from the manufacturing plant was examined. An increase of the sum of PFCs was observed between the river (30 ng/L) and an alluvial well (70 ng/L), and between the raw water (9 ng/L) and the outlet of a biological treatment (97 ng/L). These results indicate a possible degradation of fluorotelomers, occurring during wastewater treatment, sediment infiltration in the alluvial aquifer, and drinking water treatment. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Colin A.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Bach C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Rosin C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Munoz J.-F.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Dauchy X.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

The main objective of this study was to evaluate potential exposure of a significant part of the French population to alkylphenol and bisphenol contaminants due to water consumption. The occurrence of 11 alkylphenols and bisphenols was studied in raw water and treated water samples from public water systems. One sampling campaign was performed from October 2011 to May 2012. Sampling was equally distributed across 100 French departments. In total, 291 raw water samples and 291 treated water samples were analyzed in this study, representing approximately 20% of the national water supply flow. The occurrence of the target compounds was also determined for 29 brands of bottled water (polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles, polycarbonate [PC] reusable containers, and aluminum cans [ACs]) and in 5 drinking water networks where epoxy resin has been used as coating for pipes. In raw water samples, the highest individual concentration was 1,430 ng/L for bisphenol A (BPA). Of the investigated compounds, nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol 1-carboxylic acid (NP1EC), BPA, and nonylphenol 2-ethoxylate (NP2EO) predominated (detected in 18.6, 18.6, 14.4, and 10% of samples, respectively). Geographical variability was observed with departments crossed by major rivers or with high population densities being more affected by contamination. In treated water samples, the highest individual concentration was 505 ng/L for NP. Compared with raw water, target compounds were found in lower amounts in treated water. This difference suggests a relative effectiveness of certain water treatments for the elimination of these pollutants; however, there is also their possible transformation by reaction with chlorine. No target compounds were found in drinking water pipes coated with epoxy resin, in PET bottled water, or in water from ACs. However, levels of BPA in PC bottled water ranged from 70 to 4,210 ng/L with greater level observed in newly manufactured bottles. 4-Tert-butylphenol was only detected in recently manufactured bottles. The values observed for the monitored compounds indicate that drinking water is most likely not the main source of exposure. © Springer Science+Business Media 2013.


Tillner J.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Tillner J.,Imperial College London | Hollard C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Bach C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

In this study, an automated method for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chlorination by-products in drinking water was developed based on online solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main focus was the optimisation of the solid-phase microextraction step. The influence of the agitation rate, type of fibre, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, and solvent addition was examined. The method was developed and validated using a mixture of 17 PAHs, 11 potential chlorination by-products (chlorinated and oxidised PAHs) and 6 deuterated standards. The limit of quantification was 10. ng/L for all target compounds. The validated method was used to analyse drinking water samples from three different drinking water distribution networks and the presumably coal tar-based pipe coatings of two pipe sections. A number of PAHs were detected in all three networks although individual compositions varied. Several PAH chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also found, their presence correlating closely with that of their respective parent compounds. Their concentrations were always below 100. ng/L. In the coatings, all PAHs targeted were detected although concentrations varied between the two coatings (76-12,635. mg/kg and 12-6295. mg/kg, respectively). A number of chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also detected (from 40 to 985. mg/kg), suggesting that the reaction of PAHs with disinfectant agents takes place in the coatings and not in the water phase after migration. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Haman C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Haman C.,Veterinary Laboratory of the Meuse Departement | Dauchy X.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Rosin C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Munoz J.-F.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology
Water Research | Year: 2015

Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, with an alkyl (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl or heptyl) or benzyl group. They are mainly used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceutical drugs. Parabens may act as weak endocrine disrupter chemicals, but controversy still surrounds the health effects of these compounds. Despite being used since the mid-1920s, it was only in 1996 that the first analytical results of their occurrence in water were published. Considered as emerging contaminants, it is useful to review the knowledge acquired over the last decade regarding their occurrence, fate and behavior in aquatic environments. Despite treatments that eliminate them relatively well from wastewater, parabens are always present at low concentration levels in effluents of wastewater treatment plants. Although they are biodegradable, they are ubiquitous in surface water and sediments, due to consumption of paraben-based products and continuous introduction into the environment. Methylparaben and propylparaben predominate, reflecting the composition of paraben mixtures in common consumer products. Being compounds containing phenolic hydroxyl groups, parabens can react readily with free chlorine, yielding halogenated by-products. Chlorinated parabens have been detected in wastewater, swimming pools and rivers, but not yet in drinking water. These chlorinated by-products are more stable and persistent than the parent species and further studies are needed to improve knowledge regarding their toxicity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Dauchy X.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Boiteux V.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Rosin C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Munoz J.-F.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. They are used in various applications and high levels have been found in water bodies located near highly industrialized sites. In the present study, 10 PFCs were quantitatively determined in water samples collected in the vicinity of a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant and in drinking water resources located downstream. The release of PFHxA and PFNA to the receiving river was estimated at 10 and 4.5 tons/year, respectively. PFHxA (0.058-0.156 μg/L), PFNA (0.013-0.035 μg/L) and PFOA (0.007-0.025 μg/L) were predominant and prevalent in all the studied drinking water resources, confirming with the composition profile the impact of the industrial park release. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Boiteux V.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Dauchy X.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Rosin C.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology | Boiteux J.F.V.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

The occurrence of seven perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) was studied in raw- and treated-water samples from public water systems. Two sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2009 and in June 2010. Sampling was equally distributed across the 100 French departments. In total, 331 raw-water samples and 110 treated-water samples were analyzed during this study, representing approximately 20% of the national water supply flow. Concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined using automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In raw-water samples, the highest individual PFC concentration was 139 ng/L for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). The sum of all of the determined components was >100 ng/L at three sampling points (199, 117, and 115 ng/L). Of the investigated PFCs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and PFHxA predominated (detected in 27%, 13%, 11%, and 7% of samples, respectively). Geographical variability was observed, with departments crossed by major rivers or with high population densities being more affected by PFC contamination. Compared with raw water, short-chain PFCAs, but not PFASs, were found in higher abundance in treated water. This difference suggests a relative effectiveness of certain water treatments for the elimination of PFASs but also a possible degradation of PFCA precursors by watertreatment processes. Our investigations did not show any heavily contaminated sites. In treated-water samples, the highest individual PFC concentration was 125 ng/L for PFHxA. The sum of all of the determined components was >100 ng/L at one sampling point (156 ng/L). The values observed for PFOS and PFOA in drinking water were not greater than the health-based drinking-water concentration protectives for lifetime exposure that have been defined for other countries. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have been detected in the environment, biota and humans. Drinking water is a route of exposure for populations using water contaminated by PFAS discharges. This research entailed measuring concentrations, mass flows and investigating the fate of dozens PFASs in a river receiving effluents from a fluorochemical manufacturing facility. To measure the total concentration of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors, an oxidative conversion method was used. Several dozen samples were collected in the river (water and sediment), in drinking water resources and at different treatment steps on four sampling dates. One PFCA and three fluorotelomers (FTs) were detected up to 62km downstream from the manufacturing facility. 6:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB) was the predominant PFAS with a mass flow of 3830g/day 5.2km downstream from the facility. At all sampling points, PFAS concentrations in sediment were quite low (<6ng/g dw). Five of the 11 investigated wells showed detectable concentrations of PFASs. Interestingly, their profile patterns were different from those observed in the river, suggesting a transformation of PFCA precursors in the sediments of alluvial groundwater. Conventional drinking water treatments (aeration, sand or granular activated carbon filtration, ozonation or chlorination) did not efficiently remove PFASs. Furthermore, an increase in concentration of certain PFASs was observed after ozonation, suggesting that some FTs such as 6:2 FTAB can break down. Only nanofiltration was able to remove all the analyzed PFASs. In the treated water, total PFAS concentrations never exceeded 60ng/L. The oxidative conversion method revealed the presence of unidentified PFCA precursors in the river. Therefore, 18 to 77% of the total PFCA content after oxidation consisted of unidentified chemical species. In the treated water, these percentages ranged from 0 to 29%, relatively and reassuringly low values.

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