Wu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University |
Wu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Wu X.,Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science |
Li Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014
To investigate the genetic structure of Chinese maize germplasm, the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to genotype a collection of 367 inbred lines widely used in maize breeding of China. A total of 41,819 informative SNPs with minor allele number of more than 0.05 were used to estimate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. Totally 1,015 SNPs evenly distributed in the genome were selected randomly to evaluate the population structure of these accessions. Results showed that two main groups could be determined i.e., the introduced germplasm and the local germplasm. Further, five subgroups corresponding to different heterotic groups, that is, Reid Yellow Dent (Reid), Lancaster Sure Crop (Lancaster), P group (P), Tang Sipingtou (TSPT), and Tem-tropic I group (Tem-tropic I), were determined. The genetic diversity of within subgroups was highest in the Tem-Tropic I and lowest in the P. Most lines in this panel showed limited relatedness with each other. Comparisons of gene diversity showed that there existed some conservative genetic regions in specific subgroups across the ten chromosomes, i.e., seven in the Lancaster, seven in the Reid, six in the TSPT, five in the P, and two in the Tem-Tropical I. In addition, the results also revealed that there existed fifteen conservative regions transmitted from Huangzaosi, an important foundation parent, to its descendants. These are important for further studies since the outcomes may provide clues to understand why Huangzaosi could become a foundation parent in Chinese maize breeding. For the panel of 367 elite lines, average LD distance was 391 kb and varied among different chromosomes as well as in different genomic regions of one chromosome. This analysis uncovered a high natural genetic diversity in the elite maize inbred set, suggesting that the panel can be used in association study, esp. for temperate regions. © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Zhu Y.,China West Normal University |
Ding X.,China West Normal University |
Wang M.,Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science |
Hou Y.,China West Normal University |
And 2 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2016
A heteropolysaccharide was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Amanita caesarea using a diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column, Sephacryl S-300 gel column and Sephadex G-200 column. The Amanita caesarea polysaccharide was predominantly composed of α-D-glucose and α-D-lyxose at a ratio of 2:1, and it had a molecular weight of 19,329 Da. The structural features of the Amanita caesarea polysaccharide were investigated by a combination of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that Amanita caesarea polysaccharide (termed AC-1) had a backbone of 1,4-linked α-D-glucose and 1,3,6-linked α-D-glucose, with branches of one 1-linked α-D-lyxose residue. The antioxidant activity of AC-1 was evaluated by two biochemical methods, 2,2-azino-bis diammonium (ABTS+) radical scavenging activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-) radical scavenging activity. The uncontrolled production of free radicals is involved in various diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis and degenerative aging processes. The results indicated that the Amanita caesarea polysaccharide exhibits strong antioxidant activity, thus, it may be a useful natural product antioxidant.
PubMed | Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science, Zunyi Medical University and China West Normal University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular medicine reports | Year: 2016
A heteropolysaccharide was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Amanitacaesarea using a diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column, Sephacryl S300 gel column and Sephadex G200 column. The Amanitacaesarea polysaccharide was predominantly composed of -D-glucose and -D-lyxose at a ratio of 2:1, and it had a molecular weight of 19,329Da. The structural features of the Amanitacaesarea polysaccharide were investigated by a combination of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that Amanitacaesarea polysaccharide (termed AC1) had a backbone of 1,4linked Dglucose and 1,3,6linked Dglucose, with branches of one 1linked Dlyxose residue. The antioxidant activity of AC1 was evaluated by two biochemical methods, 2,2-azino-bis diammonium (ABTS+) radical scavenging activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-) radical scavenging activity. The uncontrolled production of free radicals is involved in various diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis and degenerative aging processes. The results indicated that the Amanitacaesarea polysaccharide exhibits strong antioxidant activity, thus, it may be a useful natural product antioxidant.
Yan S.,CAS Institute of Botany |
Yan S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Du X.,CAS Institute of Botany |
Du X.,Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2014
Faba bean/maize intercropping significantly promotes maize productivity in phosphorus-deficient soils. This has been attributed to the below-ground interactions including rhizosphere effects and spatial effects. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions have been scarcely investigated. Here, three types of pots were used to distinguish the influences of rhizosphere effects vs. spatial effects. Phosphorus and nitrogen uptake of shoots, biomass, total root length, and root classification were evaluated between the three treatments. Quantitative RT-PCR and proteomics analyses were conducted to investigate the putative components in the molecular basis of these interactions. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that rhizosphere effects promoted maize phosphorus status at molecular levels. 66 differentially accumulated protein spots were successfully identified through proteomics analyses. Most of the protein species were found to be involved in phosphorus, nitrogen, and allelochemical metabolism, signal transduction, or stress resistance. The results suggest that rhizosphere effects promoted phosphorus and nitrogen assimilation in maize roots and thus enhanced maize growth and nutrient uptake. The reprogramming of proteome profiles suggests that rhizosphere effects can also enhance maize tolerance through regulating the metabolism of allelochemicals and eliciting systemic acquired resistance via the stimulation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway. Biological significance: The results obtained contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the response of maize to the changes of rhizosphere condition influenced by the below-ground interactions in faba bean/maize intercropping at molecular levels. The identified protein species involved in nutrient metabolisms and stress resistance reveal the molecular basis underlying the major advantages of effective nutrient utilization and higher stress tolerance in legume/cereal intercropping systems. This work provides essential new insights into the putative components in the molecular basis of interspecific facilitation for maize in faba bean/maize intercropping. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Zhou X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Xia Y.,Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science |
Ren X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Chen Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
And 7 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014
Background: Cultivated peanut, or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40). In recent years, many efforts have been made to construct linkage maps in cultivated peanut, but almost all of these maps were constructed using low-throughput molecular markers, and most show a low density, directly influencing the value of their applications. With advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, the construction of high-density genetic maps has become more achievable in a cost-effective and rapid manner. The objective of this study was to establish a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map for cultivated peanut by analyzing next-generation double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) reads. Results: We constructed reduced representation libraries (RRLs) for two A. hypogaea lines and 166 of their recombinant inbred line (RIL) progenies using the ddRADseq technique. Approximately 175 gigabases of data containing 952,679,665 paired-end reads were obtained following Solexa sequencing. Mining this dataset, 53,257 SNPs were detected between the parents, of which 14,663 SNPs were also detected in the population, and 1,765 of the obtained polymorphic markers met the requirements for use in the construction of a genetic map. Among 50 randomly selected in silico SNPs, 47 were able to be successfully validated. One linkage map was constructed, which was comprised of 1,685 marker loci, including 1,621 SNPs and 64 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The map displayed a distribution of the markers into 20 linkage groups (LGs A01-A10 and B01-B10), spanning a distance of 1,446.7 cM. The alignment of the LGs from this map was shown in comparison with a previously integrated consensus map from peanut. Conclusions: This study showed that the ddRAD library combined with NGS allowed the rapid discovery of a large number of SNPs in the cultivated peanut. The first high density SNP-based linkage map for A. hypogaea was generated that can serve as a reference map for cultivated Arachis species and will be useful in genetic mapping. Our results contribute to the available molecular marker resources and to the assembly of a reference genome sequence for the peanut. © 2014 Zhou et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Wu L.,Southwest University |
Guan Y.,Southwest University |
Wu Z.,Southwest University |
Yang K.,Southwest University |
And 9 more authors.
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2014
Key message: An ABC transporter gene (OsABCG15) was proven to be involved in pollen development in rice. The corresponding protein was localized on the plasma membrane using subcellular localization.Abstract: Wax, cutin, and sporopollenin are important for normal development of the anther cuticle and pollen exine, respectively. Their lipid soluble precursors, which are produced in the tapetum, are then secreted and transferred to the anther and microspore surface for polymerization. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport of these precursors. Here, we identified and characterized a member of the G subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, OsABCG15, which is required for the secretion of these lipid-soluble precursors in rice. Using map-based cloning, we found a spontaneous A-to-C transition in the fourth exon of OsABCG15 that caused an amino acid substitution of Thr-to-Pro in the predicted ATP-binding domain of the protein sequence. This osabcg15 mutant failed to produce any viable pollen and was completely male sterile. Histological analysis indicated that osabcg15 exhibited an undeveloped anther cuticle, enlarged middle layer, abnormal Ubisch body development, tapetum degeneration with a falling apart style, and collapsed pollen grains without detectable exine. OsABCG15 was expressed preferentially in the tapetum, and the fused GFP-OsABCG15 protein was localized to the plasma membrane. Our results suggested that OsABCG15 played an essential role in the formation of the rice anther cuticle and pollen exine. This role may include the secretion of the lipid precursors from the tapetum to facilitate the transfer of precursors to the surface of the anther epidermis as well as to microspores. © 2014, The Author(s).
Zheng Z.P.,Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science |
Liu X.H.,China West Normal University
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide, and increasing the grain yield and biomass has been among the most important goals of maize production. The plant architecture can determine the grain yield and biomass to some extent; however, the genetic basis of the link between the plant architecture and grain yield/biomass is unclear. In this study, an immortal F9 recombinant inbred line population, derived from the cross Mo17 x Huangzao4, was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 3 traits associated with plant architecture under two nitrogen regimes: plant height, ear height, and leaf number. As a result, 8 and 10 QTLs were identified under the high nitrogen regime and low nitrogen regime, respectively. These QTLs mapped to chromosomes 1 (six QTLs), 2 (one QTL), 3 (one QTL), 7 (two QTLs), and 9 (eight QTLs), and had different genetic distances to their closest markers, ranging from 0 to 22.0 cM, explaining 4.7 to 20.5% of the phenotypic variance. Because of an additive effect, 9 and 9 could make the phenotypic values of traits increase and decrease to some extent, respectively. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of agronomic traits associated with plant architecture and for performing marker-assisted selection in maize breeding programs. © FUNPEC-RP.
Zheng Z.P.,Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science |
Liu X.H.,China West Normal University
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013
The ear leaf is one of the most important leaves in maize (Zea mays); it affects plant morphology and yield. To better understand its genetic basis, we examined ear leaf length, ear leaf width, and ear leaf area for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in a recombinant inbred line population under two nitrogen regimes. Nine QTLs, on chromosomes 1 (one), 2 (one), 3 (one), 4 (three), 7 (one), and 8 (two), were mapped under the high nitrogen regime, which explained phenotypic variation ranging from 5.4 to 14.8%. Under the low nitrogen regime, 7 QTLs were located on chromosomes 1 (one), 4 (two), 7 (one), and 8 (three), which accounted for phenotypic variation ranging from 5.5 to 20.5%. These QTLs had different mapping intervals to their nearest markers, ranging from 0.3 to 21.0 cM. Due to additive effects, 3 and 13 QTLs can cause phenotypic values of these traits to increase or decrease to some extent, respectively. This information will help understand the genetic basis of ear leaf formation and will be useful for developing marker-assisted selection in maize-breeding projects. © FUNPEC-RP.
PubMed | Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Type: | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2015
Exploring genetic differentiation and genomic variation is important for both the utilization of heterosis and the dissection of the genetic bases of complex traits.We integrated 1857 diverse maize accessions from America, Africa, Europe and Asia to investigatetheir genetic differentiation, genomic variation using 43,252 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs),combing GWAS and linkage analysis strategy to exploring the function of relevant genetic segments.We uncovered many more subpopulations that recently or historically formed during the breeding process. These patterns are represented by the following lines: Mo17, GB, E28, Ye8112, HZS, Shen137, PHG39, B73, 207, A634, Oh43, Reid Yellow Dent, and the Tropical/subtropical (TS) germplasm. A total of 85 highly differentiated regions with a DEST of more than 0.2 were identified between the TS and temperate subpopulations. These regions comprised 79% of the genetic variation, and most were significantly associated with adaptive traits. For example, the region containing the SNP tag PZE.108075114 was highly differentiated, and this region was significantly associated with flowering time (FT)-related traits, as supported by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) within the interval of FT-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). This region was also closely linked to zcn8 and vgt1, which were shown to be involved in maize adaptation. Most importantly, 197 highly differentiated regions between different subpopulation pairs were located within an FT- or plant architecture-related QTL.Here we reported that 700-1000 SNPs were necessary needed to robustly estimate the genetic differentiation of a naturally diverse panel. In addition, 13 subpopulations were observed in maize germplasm, 85 genetic regions with higher differentiation between TS and temperate maize germplasm, 197 highly differentiated regions between different subpopulation pairs, which contained some FT- related QTNs/QTLs/genes supported by GWAS and linkage analysis, and these regions were expected to play important roles in maize adaptation.
PubMed | Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science, Huazhong Agricultural University, University of Saskatchewan and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Late leaf spot (LLS) is one of the most serious foliar diseases affecting peanut worldwide leading to huge yield loss. To understand the genetic basis of LLS and assist breeding in the future, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for LLS and three plant-type-related traits including height of main stem (HMS), length of the longest branch (LLB) and total number of branches (TNB). Significant negative correlations were observed between LLS and the plant-type-related traits in multi-environments of a RIL population from the cross Zhonghua 5 and ICGV 86699. A total of 20 QTLs were identified for LLS, of which two QTLs were identified in multi-environments and six QTLs with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) more than 10%. Ten, seven, fifteen QTLs were identified for HMS, LLB and TNB, respectively. Of these, one, one, two consensus QTLs and three, two, three major QTLs were detected for HMS, LLB and TNB, respectively. Of all 52 unconditional QTLs for LLS and plant-type-related traits, 10 QTLs were clustered in five genetic regions, of which three clusters including five robust major QTLs overlapped between LLS and one of the plant-type-related traits, providing evidence that the correlation could be genetically constrained. On the other hand, conditional mapping revealed different numbers and different extent of additive effects of QTLs for LLS conditioned on three plant-type-related traits (HMS, LLB and TNB), which improved our understanding of interrelationship between LLS and plant-type-related traits at the QTL level. Furthermore, two QTLs, qLLSB6-7 and qLLSB1 for LLS resistance, were identified residing in two clusters of NB-LRR-encoding genes. This study not only provided new favorable QTLs for fine-mapping, but also suggested that the relationship between LLS and plant-type-related traits of HMS, LLB and TNB should be considered while breeding for improved LLS resistance in peanut.