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Poncelet P.,Biocytex | Robert S.,Aix - Marseille University | Bailly N.,Catholic University of Louvain | Garnache-Ottou F.,University of Burgundy | And 5 more authors.
Transfusion and Apheresis Science | Year: 2015

Submicron-sized extra-cellular vesicles generated by budding from the external cell membranes, microparticles (MPs) are important actors in transfusion as well as in other medical specialties. After briefly positioning their role in the characterization of labile blood products, this technically oriented chapter aims to review practical points that need to be considered when trying to use flow cytometry for the analysis, characterization and absolute counting of MP subsets. Subjects of active discussions relative to instrumentation will include the choice of the trigger parameter, possible standardization approaches requiring instrument quality-control, origin and control of non-specific background and of coincidence artifacts, choice of the type of electronic signals, optimal sheath fluid and sample speed. Questions related to reagents will cover target antigens and receptors, multi-color reagents, negative controls, enumeration of MPs and limiting artifacts due to unexpected (micro-) coagulation of plasma samples. Newly detected problems are generating innovative solutions and flow cytometry will continue to remain the technology of choice for the analysis of MPs, in the domain of transfusion as well as in many diverse specialties. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Douxfils J.,University of Namur | Buckinx F.,University of Liege | Mullier F.,University of Namur | Mullier F.,Namur Research Institute for Life science NARILIS | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2014

Background-Signals of an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) have been identified with dabigatran etexilate in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods and Resules-We conducted searches of the published literature and a clinical trials registry maintained by the drug manufacturer. Criteria for inclusion in our meta-analysis included all RCTs and the availability of outcome data for MI, other cardiovascular events, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. Among the 501 unique references identified, 14 RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Stratification analyses by comparators and doses of dabigatran etexilate were conducted. Peto odds ratio (ORPETO) values using the fixed-effect model (FEM) for MI, other cardiovascular events, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality were 1.34 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.65, P=0.007), 0.93 (95%CI 0.83 to 1.06, P=0.270), 0.88 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.99, P=0.029), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00, P=0.041). When compared with warfarin, ORPETO values using FEM were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.80, P=0.005), 0.94 (95%CI 0.83 to 1.06, P=0.293), 0.85 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.96, P=0.007), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.01, P=0.061), respectively. In RCTs using the 150-mg BID dosage, the ORPETO values using FEM were 1.45 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.91, P=0.007), 0.95 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.09, P=0.423), 0.92 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.05, P=0.228), and 0.88 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.00, P=0.045), respectively. The results of the 110-mg BID dosage were mainly driven by the RE-LY trial. Conclusions-This meta-analysis provides evidence that dabigatran etexilate is associated with a significantly increased risk of MI. This increased risk should be considered taking into account the overall benefit in terms of major bleeding and all-cause mortality. © 2014 The Authors. Source


Grandjean M.,Institute Of Recherche Experimentale Et Clinique Irec | Sermeus A.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Branders S.,Institute of Information and Communication Technologies | Defresne F.,Institute Of Recherche Experimentale Et Clinique Irec | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The expression by tumor cells of proteins with aberrant structure, expression or distribution accounts for the development of a humoral immune response. Autoantibodies (aAb) directed against tumor-associated antigens (TAA) may thus be particularly relevant for early detection of cancer. Serological proteome analysis (SERPA) aims to identify such circulating aAb through the immunoblotting of 2D-separated tumor cell proteins with cancer patient serum and the consecutive MS identification of proteins in reactive spots. This method has the advantage to use post-translationally modified proteins as a source of potential TAA. Here, we applied this strategy by using colorectal tumor cells pre-exposed to hypoxia in order to promote the expression of a pattern of TAA more likely to represent in vivo conditions. We used two human HCT116 and HT29 colorectal cancer cell lines exposed for 48 hours to 1% O2. Spots positive after immunoblotting of 2D-separated lysates of hypoxic cells with the sera of tumor-bearing mice, were collected and analysed by MS for protein identification. Among the hypoxia-specific immunogenic proteins, we identified a phosphorylated form of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (phospho-Thr56 eEF2). We confirmed the increased phosphorylation of this protein in hypoxic colorectal tumor cells as well as in mouse tumors. Using a specific immunoassay, we could detect the presence of corresponding anti-phospho-Thr56 eEF2 aAb in the serum of tumor-bearing mice (vs healthy mice). We further documented that the detection of these aAb preceded the detection of a palpable tumor mass in mice and validated the presence of anti-phospho-Thr56 eEF2 aAb in the serum of patients with adenomatous polyps and colorectal carcinoma. In conclusion, this study validates a phosphorylated form of eEF2 as a new TAA and more generally, provides evidence that integrating hypoxia upstream of SERPA offers a more relevant repertoire of TAA able to unmask the presence of circulating aAb. © 2013 Grandjean et al. Source


Mullier F.,Hematology Laboratory NARILIS | Mullier F.,University of Namur | Mullier F.,Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center | Minet V.,University of Namur | And 11 more authors.
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2014

Background Early diagnosis of immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is essential to improve clinical outcome but remains challenging. The release of platelet microparticles (PMPs) is considered of major pathophysiological significance. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate performances of PMP generation assay (PMPGA) compared to clinical outcome to diagnose HIT. The second objective was to compare PMPGA with performances of 14C- serotonin release assay (SRA) on the same series of patients. Methods Sera of 53 HIT-suspected patients were retrospectively incubated with citrated-whole blood from healthy donors with 1 IU and 500 IU/ml of unfractionated heparin (UH). PMPGA was performed using FACSAria® flow cytometer. The clinical diagnosis was established by two blinded independent investigators analysing in a standardized manner the patient's medical records. Performances of PMPGA and SRA (n = 53) were evaluated using ROC curve analysis with clinical outcome as reference. Results In positive HIT patients, PMPs expressing phosphatidylserine are generated with low UH concentration whereas PMP rate decreases significantly in presence of high UH concentration. Using clinical outcome as reference, sensitivity and specificity of PMPGA reached 88.9% (95% CI: 50.7-99.4) and 100.0% (95% CI: 90.0-100.0). Sensitivity and specificity of 14C-SRA were 88.9% (95% CI: 50.7-99.4) and 95.5% (95% CI: 83.3-99.2). Conclusions PMPGA is a rapid and reliable assay for HIT diagnosis. PMPGA showed good correlation with 14C-SRA performances and predominately with clinical outcome. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Douxfils J.,University of Namur | Chatelain C.,Namur Research Institute for Life science NARILIS | Chatelain B.,Namur Research Institute for Life science NARILIS | Dogne J.-M.,University of Namur | Mullier F.,University of Namur
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2013

Apixaban does not require monitoring nor frequent dose adjustment. However, searching for the optimal dose for the individual patient may be useful in some situations. Moreover, there is a need for clinicians to know whether coagulation assays are influenced by apixaban use. The aim of this study was to determine which coagulation assay could be used to assess the impact of apixaban on haemostasis and provide good laboratory recommendations for the accurate interpretation of haemostasis assays. Apixaban is spiked at concentrations ranging from 5 to 500 ng/ml in platelet-poor plasma. Routinely used or more specific coagulation assays are tested. Results show a concentration dependent prolongation of aPTT, PT and dilute PT. The sensitivity mainly depends on the reagent, but none of these tests is sensitive enough to ensure an accurate estimation of the pharmacodynamic ef fect of apixaban. FXa chromogenic assays show high sensitivity and a linear correlation depending on the reagent and/or the methodology. Immunological assays and assays acting below the FXa are not influenced by apixaban. In conclusion, PT and/or dilute PT cannot be used to assess apixaban pharmacodynamic properties. More specific and sensitive assays such as chromogenic FXa assays using specific calibrators are required. In case of thrombophilia or in the exploration of a haemorrhagic event, immunological assays should be recommended, when applicable. Standardisation of the time between the last intake of apixaban and the sampling is mandatory. © Schattauer 2013. Source

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