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Namhae, South Korea

Cho K.M.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Ha T.J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Lee Y.B.,Gyeongsang National University | Seo W.D.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2013

This research was the first to investigate nutritional components, including soluble phenolics (isoflavones and anthocyanins), protein, oil, and fatty acid as well as antioxidant activities in different coloured seed coat soybeans (yellow, black, brown, and green) for two crop years. The soluble phenolics differed significantly with cultivars, crop years, and seed coat colours, while protein, oil, and fatty acid exhibited only slight variations. Especially, malonylgenistin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside compositions had the most remarkable variations. Green soybeans had the highest average isoflavone content (3079.42μg/g), followed by yellow (2393.41μg/g), and black soybeans (2373.97μg/g), with brown soybeans showing the lowest value (1821.82μg/g). Anthocyanins showed only in black soybeans, with the average contents of the primary anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidine-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-glucoside, quantified at 11.046, 1.971, and 0.557. mg/g, respectively. Additionally, Nogchae of green soybean and Geomjeongkong 2 of black soybean may be recommended as potential cultivars owing to the highest average isoflavone (4411.10μg/g) and anthocyanin (21.537. mg/g) contents. The scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals also differed remarkably, depending upon isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, with black soybeans exhibiting the highest antioxidant effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lee S.-J.,Gyeongsang National University | Kang M.-J.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | Shin J.-H.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study investigated black garlic and mugwort extracts have anti-stress activity. The antioxidant activities of extracts from black garlic (BEP), mugwort (MEP), and three mixtures (MPA, 95:5; MPB, 90:10; MPC, 85:15, w/w% for BEP and MEP, respectively) were tested in vitro. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities for the mixtures (MPA, MPB and MPC) were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner by the amount of mugwort extract. A restraint stress was imposed on six groups of Sprague-Dawley rats supplemented with an AIN-93 diet (RSC) or one of five kinds of hot water extract drinks containing (black garlic, RS1; mugwort, RS2; and mixtures of black garlic: mugwort at 95:5, RS3; 90:10, RS4, and a mixture of black garlic: mugwort: apple extract: xylitol=90.25:4.75:2:3, RS5; v/v%) for 4 weeks. The normal group was fed with the AIN-93 diet and not exposed to restraint stress. Food intake was higher in the group fed with garlic extract (RS1), while the body weight gain and food efficiency ratio did not significantly change. The total serum cholesterol content in the RS1 and RS2 groups was significantly lower than the RSC group (control), and the RS5 group was not significantly different compared to the RS3 group. The serum triglyceride content was significantly higher RS3 ~RS5 groups than RS1 and RS2 groups. In terms of HDL-C and LDL-C contents, AI and CRF in the serum were not significantly different between RS3 and RS5 groups. AST and ALP activities of RS1~RS5 groups were significantly lower than the RSC group. The liver total lipid and cholesterol contents of RS1∼RS5 groups were significantly lower than RSC group, and triglyceride content was significantly lower in the RS1 group. Glycogen in the liver tissue was significantly higher in the RS2 and RS3 group compared to the RSC group. These results show that the intake of a mixture of black garlic and mugwort extracts may be effective in the alleviation of hyperlipidemia caused by restraint stress. Source

Kim G.M.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | Jung W.J.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | Shin J.H.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | Kang M.J.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

We conducted this study to develop a high value black garlic Makgeolli that was made of black garlic extract (BGE) and Sulgidduk. We investigated the quality characteristics of Makgeolli made with three different combinations of materials (control, Sulgidduk only; A, Sulgidduk combined with 15% BGE and water; B, Sulgidduk combined with 15% BGE instead of water). The pH of A and B were higher than the control, but the titratable acidity of A and B were lower. The sugar and alcohol contents of A and B increased during fermentation. A similar growth pattern was observed invisible cells, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria in all three Makgeolli. In A and B, the quantity of lactic acid bacteria was relatively higher than the yeast. The L value (lightness) was highest in the control, and the a value (redness) and b value (yellowness) were higher in A and B. The antioxidant properties of the three types of Makgeolli were evaluated using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) radical scavenging activities. In these assays, B showed significantly higher radical scavenging activities than the other two Makgeolli. Source

Ha T.J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Lee B.W.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Park K.H.,Gyeongsang National University | Jeong S.H.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The present work was reported on investigation of saponin profiles in nine different legume seeds, including soybean, adzuki bean, cowpea, common bean, scarlet runner bean, lentil, chick pea, hyacinth bean, and broad bean using ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS) technique. A total of twenty saponins were characterised under rapid and simple conditions within 15 min by the 80% methanol extracts of all species. Their chemical structures were elucidated as soyasaponin Ab (1), soyasaponin Ba (2), soyasaponin Bb (3), soyasaponin Bc (4), soyasaponin Bd (5), soyasaponin αg (6), soyasaponin βg (7), soyasaponin βa (8), soyasaponin γg (9), soyasaponin γa (10), azukisaponin VI (11), azukisaponin IV (12), azukisaponin II (13), AzII (14), AzIV (15), lablaboside E (16), lablaboside F (17), lablaboside D (18), chikusetusaponin IVa (19), and lablab saponin I (20). The individual and total saponin compositions exhibited remarkable differences in all legume seeds. In particular, soyasaponin βa (8) was detected the predominant composition in soybean, cowpea, and lentil with various concentrations. Interestingly, soybean, adzuki bean, common bean, and scarlet runner bean had high saponin contents, while chick pea and broad bean showed low contents. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kim D.W.,Gyeongsang National University | Curtis-Long M.J.,Brandeis University | Yuk H.J.,Gyeongsang National University | Wang Y.,Gyeongsang National University | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Angelica keiskei is used as popular functional food stuff. However, quantitative analysis of this plant's metabolites has not yet been disclosed. The principal phenolic compounds (1-16) within A. keiskei were isolated, enabling us to quantify the metabolites within different parts of the plant. The specific quantification of metabolites (1-16) was accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a quadruple tandem mass spectrometer. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were calculated as 0.4-44 μg/kg and 1.5-148 μg/kg, respectively. Abundance and composition of these metabolites varied significantly across different parts of plant. For example, the abundance of chalcones (12-16) decreased as follows: root bark (10.51 mg/g) > stems (8.52 mg/g) > leaves (2.63 mg/g) > root cores (1.44 mg/g). The chalcones were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition shown by this plant. The most potent inhibitor, xanthoangelol inhibited XO with an IC50 of 8.5 μM. Chalcones (12-16) exhibited mixed-type inhibition characteristics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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