Namhae Garlic Research Institute

Namhae, South Korea

Namhae Garlic Research Institute

Namhae, South Korea
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Cho K.M.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Ha T.J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Lee Y.B.,Gyeongsang National University | Seo W.D.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2013

This research was the first to investigate nutritional components, including soluble phenolics (isoflavones and anthocyanins), protein, oil, and fatty acid as well as antioxidant activities in different coloured seed coat soybeans (yellow, black, brown, and green) for two crop years. The soluble phenolics differed significantly with cultivars, crop years, and seed coat colours, while protein, oil, and fatty acid exhibited only slight variations. Especially, malonylgenistin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside compositions had the most remarkable variations. Green soybeans had the highest average isoflavone content (3079.42μg/g), followed by yellow (2393.41μg/g), and black soybeans (2373.97μg/g), with brown soybeans showing the lowest value (1821.82μg/g). Anthocyanins showed only in black soybeans, with the average contents of the primary anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidine-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-glucoside, quantified at 11.046, 1.971, and 0.557. mg/g, respectively. Additionally, Nogchae of green soybean and Geomjeongkong 2 of black soybean may be recommended as potential cultivars owing to the highest average isoflavone (4411.10μg/g) and anthocyanin (21.537. mg/g) contents. The scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals also differed remarkably, depending upon isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, with black soybeans exhibiting the highest antioxidant effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lee S.-J.,Gyeongsang National University | Kang M.-J.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | Shin J.-H.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study investigated black garlic and mugwort extracts have anti-stress activity. The antioxidant activities of extracts from black garlic (BEP), mugwort (MEP), and three mixtures (MPA, 95:5; MPB, 90:10; MPC, 85:15, w/w% for BEP and MEP, respectively) were tested in vitro. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities for the mixtures (MPA, MPB and MPC) were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner by the amount of mugwort extract. A restraint stress was imposed on six groups of Sprague-Dawley rats supplemented with an AIN-93 diet (RSC) or one of five kinds of hot water extract drinks containing (black garlic, RS1; mugwort, RS2; and mixtures of black garlic: mugwort at 95:5, RS3; 90:10, RS4, and a mixture of black garlic: mugwort: apple extract: xylitol=90.25:4.75:2:3, RS5; v/v%) for 4 weeks. The normal group was fed with the AIN-93 diet and not exposed to restraint stress. Food intake was higher in the group fed with garlic extract (RS1), while the body weight gain and food efficiency ratio did not significantly change. The total serum cholesterol content in the RS1 and RS2 groups was significantly lower than the RSC group (control), and the RS5 group was not significantly different compared to the RS3 group. The serum triglyceride content was significantly higher RS3 ~RS5 groups than RS1 and RS2 groups. In terms of HDL-C and LDL-C contents, AI and CRF in the serum were not significantly different between RS3 and RS5 groups. AST and ALP activities of RS1~RS5 groups were significantly lower than the RSC group. The liver total lipid and cholesterol contents of RS1∼RS5 groups were significantly lower than RSC group, and triglyceride content was significantly lower in the RS1 group. Glycogen in the liver tissue was significantly higher in the RS2 and RS3 group compared to the RSC group. These results show that the intake of a mixture of black garlic and mugwort extracts may be effective in the alleviation of hyperlipidemia caused by restraint stress.

Ha T.J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Lee B.W.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Park K.H.,Gyeongsang National University | Jeong S.H.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The present work was reported on investigation of saponin profiles in nine different legume seeds, including soybean, adzuki bean, cowpea, common bean, scarlet runner bean, lentil, chick pea, hyacinth bean, and broad bean using ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS) technique. A total of twenty saponins were characterised under rapid and simple conditions within 15 min by the 80% methanol extracts of all species. Their chemical structures were elucidated as soyasaponin Ab (1), soyasaponin Ba (2), soyasaponin Bb (3), soyasaponin Bc (4), soyasaponin Bd (5), soyasaponin αg (6), soyasaponin βg (7), soyasaponin βa (8), soyasaponin γg (9), soyasaponin γa (10), azukisaponin VI (11), azukisaponin IV (12), azukisaponin II (13), AzII (14), AzIV (15), lablaboside E (16), lablaboside F (17), lablaboside D (18), chikusetusaponin IVa (19), and lablab saponin I (20). The individual and total saponin compositions exhibited remarkable differences in all legume seeds. In particular, soyasaponin βa (8) was detected the predominant composition in soybean, cowpea, and lentil with various concentrations. Interestingly, soybean, adzuki bean, common bean, and scarlet runner bean had high saponin contents, while chick pea and broad bean showed low contents. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Shin J.-H.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | Ryu J.H.,Gyeongsang National University | Kang M.J.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | Hwang C.R.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic.Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25. °C and 95. °C, respectively, for 2. h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kim D.W.,Gyeongsang National University | Curtis-Long M.J.,Brandeis University | Yuk H.J.,Gyeongsang National University | Wang Y.,Gyeongsang National University | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Angelica keiskei is used as popular functional food stuff. However, quantitative analysis of this plant's metabolites has not yet been disclosed. The principal phenolic compounds (1-16) within A. keiskei were isolated, enabling us to quantify the metabolites within different parts of the plant. The specific quantification of metabolites (1-16) was accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a quadruple tandem mass spectrometer. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were calculated as 0.4-44 μg/kg and 1.5-148 μg/kg, respectively. Abundance and composition of these metabolites varied significantly across different parts of plant. For example, the abundance of chalcones (12-16) decreased as follows: root bark (10.51 mg/g) > stems (8.52 mg/g) > leaves (2.63 mg/g) > root cores (1.44 mg/g). The chalcones were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition shown by this plant. The most potent inhibitor, xanthoangelol inhibited XO with an IC50 of 8.5 μM. Chalcones (12-16) exhibited mixed-type inhibition characteristics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Park H.-J.,Gyeongsang National University | Jeon B.T.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim H.C.,Gyeongsang National University | Roh G.S.,Gyeongsang National University | And 5 more authors.
Acta Physiologica | Year: 2012

Aim: It is known that garlic has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Aged red garlic (ARG), a novel aged garlic formulation, has higher antioxidant effects than fresh raw garlic. This study was performed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of ARG extract (ARGE). Methods: The anti-inflammatory effects of ARGE were evaluated in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw 264.7 macrophages and acute lung inflammatory mice. NO production was determined by the Griess method, and iNOS, HO-1 and COX-2 expressions were measured using Western blot analysis. Histology and inflammation extent of lung were analysed using haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Results: ARGE treatment markedly reduced LPS-induced nitrite production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Treatment of cells with ARGE led to a significant increase in haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, which was mediated by stimulating the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Treatment with zinc protoporphyrin, a selective inhibitor of HO-1, significantly reversed the ARGE-mediated inhibition of nitrite production (P < 0.05). In LPS-induced inflammatory mice, ARGE treatment down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expressions, while it up-regulated HO-1 expression. Conclusion: These results show that ARGE reduces LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction and suggest that ARGE may have potential effects on prevention and treatment of acute inflammatory lung injury. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

Kim R.-J.,Gyeongsang National University | Hah Y.-S.,Gyeongsang National University | Sung C.-M.,Gyeongsang National University | Kang J.-R.,Namhae Garlic Research Institute | Park H.B.,Gyeongsang National University
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2014

Recent research on tendinopathy has focused on its relationship to programmed cell death. Increased autophagy has been observed in ruptured rotator cuff tendon tissues, suggesting a causal relationship. We investigated whether autophagy occurs in human rotator cuff tenofibroblast death induced by oxidative stress and whether antioxidants protect against autophagic cell death. We used H2O2 (0.75-mM) as oxidative stressor, cyanidin (100-μg/ml) as antioxidant, zVAD (20-μM) as apoptosis inhibitor, and 3-MA (10-mM) as autophagy inhibitor. We evaluated cell viability and known autophagic markers: LC3-II expression, GFP-LC3 puncta formation, autolysosomes, and Atg5-12 and Beclin 1 expression. H2O2 exposure increased the rates of cell death, LC3-II expression, GFP-LC3 puncta formation, and autolysosomes. After we induced apoptosis arrest using zVAD, H2O 2 exposure still induced cell death, LC3-II expression, and GFP-LC3 puncta formation. H2O2 exposure also increased Atg5-12 and Beclin 1 expressions, indicating autophagic cell death. However, cyanidin treatment reduced H2O2-induced cell death, LC3-II expression, GFP-LC3 puncta formation, and autolysosomes. Cyanidin and 3-MA similarly reduced the cell-death rate, and Atg5-12 and Beclin 1 expression. This study demonstrated that H2O2, an oxidative stressor, induces autophagic cell death in rotator cuff tenofibroblasts, and that cyanidin, a natural antioxidant, inhibits autophagic cell death. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Jeong J.H.,Gyeongsang National University | Jeong H.R.,Gyeongsang National University | Jeong H.R.,Pacificpharma Corporation | Jo Y.N.,Gyeongsang National University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: In vitro antioxidant activities and neuron-like PC12 cell protective effects of solvent fractions from aged garlic extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-amnesic functions. Ethyl acetate fractions of aged garlic had higher total phenolics than other fractions. Methods: Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic were examined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect using mouse whole brain homogenates. Levels of cellular oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). PC12 cell viability was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydtrogenase (LDH) assay. The learning and memory impairment in institute of cancer research (ICR) mice was induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ) to investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of aged garlic extracts by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Results: We discovered that ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and MDA inhibitory effect. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment in PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were presented in the medium compare to PC12 cells which was only treated with Aβ only. Ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic extracts showed protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-administration with aged garlic extracts attenuated Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in both in vivo tests. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that aged garlic extracts with antioxidant activities may improve cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit, and possess a wide range of beneficial activities for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). © 2013 Jeong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Gyeongsang National University and Namhae Garlic Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE, NO, IL-6, IL-1, LTD, and LTE production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose), which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-B activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS.

PubMed | Korea Institute of Science and Technology and Namhae Garlic Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Phytotherapy research : PTR | Year: 2016

The antiinflammatory effects of functionally active compounds isolated from aged black garlic (AGE-1 and AGE-2) were investigated using a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response model. To examine the potential antiinflammatory properties of AGE-1 and AGE-2, cell viability as well as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine [interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-, and IL-1] levels were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results indicated that AGE-1 and AGE-2 were not cytotoxic to macrophages. Nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels decreased significantly with increasing concentration of AGE-1 (IC

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