Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
Klonowski W.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2017
I discuss several aspects of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic fields while showing results of experiments demonstrating how EMFs influence growth of corn seedlings and growing of cress seeds. Not only EMFs of selected frequencies but also broadband electromagnetic noise affects living organisms Hypersensitivity to EMFs should be a matter of special concern. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018.
Kulikowski J.L.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2018
Typical pattern recognition problem consists in assigning of a given object (result of observation) to one of previously defined similarity classes of objects. The problem has an unique solution if the classes are disjoint; otherwise it may happen that the considered object can be assigned to a class only on a limited certainty level. A more general problem arises if the object being to be recognized has not been described with a full accuracy. The situations of uncertainty consisting in missing some components of objects description and in inaccuracy of some objects’ features or parameters description are considered. An approach to the solution of the ill-described objects recognition based on the concepts of relative logic is proposed. This makes the proposed approach closer to a natural human decision making supported by intuition and, as such, useful in the case of uncertainty concerning the input data of the recognition problem. © Springer International Publishing AG 2018.
Karbowski J.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering |
Karbowski J.,University of Warsaw |
Karbowski J.,California Institute of Technology
Frontiers in Neural Circuits | Year: 2014
Mammalian brains span about four orders of magnitude in cortical volume and have to operate in different environments that require diverse behavioral skills. Despite these geometric and behavioral diversities, the examination of cerebral cortex across species reveals that it contains a substantial number of conserved characteristics that are associated with neuroanatomy and metabolism, i.e., with neuronal connectivity and function. Some of these cortical constants or invariants have been known for a long time but not sufficiently appreciated, and others were only recently discovered. The focus of this review is to present the cortical invariants and discuss their role in the efficient information processing. Global conservation in neuroanatomy and metabolism, as well as their correlated regional and developmental variability suggest that these two parallel systems are mutually coupled. It is argued that energetic constraint on cortical organization can be strong if cerebral blood supplied is either below or above a certain level, and it is rather soft otherwise. Moreover, because maximization or minimization of parameters associated with cortical connectivity, function and cost often leads to conflicts in design, it is argued that the architecture of the cerebral cortex is a result of structural and functional compromises. © 2014 Karbowski.
Korzynska A.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering |
Iwanowski M.,Warsaw University of Technology
Opto-electronics Review | Year: 2012
This paper describes the multistage morphological segmentation method (MSMA) for microscopic cell images. The proposed method enables us to study the cell behaviour by using a sequence of two types of microscopic images: bright field images and/or fluorescent images. The proposed method is based on two types of information: the cell texture coming from the bright field images and intensity of light emission, done by fluorescent markers. The method is dedicated to the image sequences segmentation and it is based on mathematical morphology methods supported by other image processing techniques. The method allows for detecting cells in image independently from a degree of their flattening and from presenting structures which produce the texture. It makes use of some synergic information from the fluorescent light emission image as the support information. The MSMA method has been applied to images acquired during the experiments on neural stem cells as well as to artificial images. In order to validate the method, two types of errors have been considered: the error of cell area detection and the error of cell position using artificial images as the "gold standard". © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.
Golczewski T.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
Respiratory research | Year: 2012
Recent studies have showed that FEV1/FVC describing correspondence between the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) depends significantly on age. However, the nature of this dependence is uncertain. The study aim is to analyze mathematically the relationship between FEV1 and FVC to find a cause of the FEV1/FVC dependence on age in healthy subjects. The relationship was examined for 1,120 males and 1,625 females--Polish (Caucasian) population, healthy, never-smoking, aged 18 - 85 years, who performed a technically adequate spirometry maneuver. Lung functions were measured using the LungTest1000 (MES, Poland) with maximal effort according to the ATS/ERS guidelines. A very strong, age-independent linear relationship between FEV1 and FVC was found in healthy individuals (the correlation coefficient r = 0.96). It can be described with the equation FEV1 = A x FVC + C, where A = 0.84 and C = -0.23 (-0.36) for females (males). As C is different from zero, FEV1/FVC depends on FVC because FEV1/FVC = A + C/FVC, in average. And thus, since FVC is significantly age-dependent, FEV1/FVC has to be also age-dependent because of the term C/FVC. In particular, the smaller the FVC value because of advanced age, the more significant the fall of FEV1/FVC. FEV1/FVC dependence on age in healthy individuals is of mathematical rather than biological nature. Due to the strong correlation between FEV1 and FVC in healthy subjects, the difference between patient's FEV1 and the FEV1 value expected for patient's FVC seems to be a more natural, age-independent description of the correspondence between patient's FEV1 and FVC.
Piotrkiewicz M.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering |
Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz I.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2011
Motor unit (MU) potentials were registered from 20 ALS patients and 13 age-matched control individuals during isometric constant force contractions of brachial biceps (BB). The registered signals were decomposed into single MU potential trains. The estimates of duration of the afterhyperpolarisation (AHP) in MNs, derived from the interspike interval variability, was compared between ALS patients (124 MNs) and control subjects (111 MNs) and no significant differences were encountered. However, the relationship between TI and age for patients appeared to be qualitatively different from that of the control group. The dependence of patients' AHPs on relative force deficit (RFD), which quantified muscle involvement, was more specific. For RFDs below 30%, the AHP estimate was significantly lower than control values and then increased thereafter with increasing RFDs. Moreover, firing rates of patients with the smallest RFDs were significantly higher while firing rates of patients with the greatest RFDs were significantly lower than control values. The AHP shortening in the early stages of muscle impairment is consistent with the decrease in firing threshold of 'fast' MNs found in spinal cord slices from neonatal SOD1 mice. The later elongation of the AHP may be caused by the higher vulnerability of 'fast' MNs to degeneration and by the influence of reinnervation. Our results are comparable to what has been observed in acute experiments in animal models, providing a bridge between animal and clinical research that may be relevant for identification of mechanism(s) underlying neurodegeneration in ALS. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 The Physiological Society.
Granicka L.H.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2014
This paper reviews the recent research and development of the systems of nano-thin layers coated cells for biomedical applications. Polyelectrolyte based nano-thin polymer coatings, due to their individual layered structure and functionalization ability, are a promising part of the systems involving cells for biological processes regulation. The purpose of the layer-by-layer coating technique application is to minimize capsule void volume and separate cells from the host immunological system eliminating immunosuppressive therapy during transplantation. The materials for polyelectrolyte shells and their modifications, followed by the techniques of forming polymer nano-thin coatings are briefly introduced. The enhanced properties of cell nanocoatings are then discussed, involving usability for encapsulation of live cells, immunological barrier, and coatings detection among others. The systems utilizing layer-by layer coatings without cell participation are briefly mentioned. Finally, the perspectives for the future are discussed in terms of limitations and application in biomedicine. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.
Fereniec M.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research | Year: 2011
The effective screening of myocardial infarction (MI) patients threatened by ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an important issue in clinical practice, especially in the process of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy recommendation. This study proposes new parameters describing depolarization and repolarization inhomogeneity in high resolution body surface potential maps (HR BSPM) to identify MI patients threatened by VT. High resolution ECGs were recorded from 64 surface leads. Time-averaged HR BSPMs were used. Several parameters for arrhythmia risk assessment were calculated in 2 groups of MI patients: those with and without documented VT. Additionally, a control group of healthy subjects was studied. To assess the risk of VT, the following parameters were proposed: correlation coefficient between STT and QRST integral maps (STT_QRST_CORR), departure index of absolute value of STT integral map (STT_DI), and departure index of absolute value of T-wave shape index (TSI_DI). These new parameters were compared to known parameters: QRS width, QT interval, QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend interval, total cosines between QRS complex and T wave, and non-dipolar content of QRST integral maps. STT_DI, TSI_DI, STT_QRST_CORR, QRS width, and QT interval parameters were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) in arrhythmia risk assessment. The highest sensitivity was found for the STT_DI parameter (0.77) and the highest specificity for TSI_DI (0.79). Arrhythmia risk is demonstrated by both abnormal spatial distribution of the repolarization phase and changed relationship between depolarization and repolarization phases, as well as their prolongation. The proposed new parameters might be applied for risk stratification of cardiac arrhythmia.
Waniewski J.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
Archives of Medical Research | Year: 2013
Fluid removal during peritoneal dialysis is controlled by many mutually dependent factors and therefore its analysis is more complex than that of the removal of small solutes used as markers of dialysis adequacy. Many new tests have been proposed to assess quantitatively different components of fluid transport (transcapillary ultrafiltration, peritoneal absorption, free water, etc.) and to estimate the factors that influence the rate of fluid transport (osmotic conductance). These tests provide detailed information about indices and parameters that describe fluid transport, especially those concerning the problem of the permanent loss of ultrafiltration capacity (ultrafiltration failure). Different theories and respective mathematical models of mechanisms and pathways of fluid transport are presently discussed and applied, and some fluid transport issues are still debated. © 2013 IMSS.
Ladyzynski P.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering |
Molik M.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering |
Foltynski P.,Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2015
Background: A limited evidence exists regarding comparisons of clinical effectiveness of available therapies for first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods: We compared available therapies for treatment-naïve, symptomatic CLL regarding progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in all the identified random control trials and in subgroups composed of younger/fit and older/unfit patients, using a Bayesian network meta-analysis. Results: In younger/fit patients we obtained median of projected mean PFS of: 19, 26, 31, 43, 51 and 75. months for chlorambucil, fludarabine, alemtuzumab, fludarabine with cyclophosphamide (FC), bendamustine and fludarabine with cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR), respectively. We noted median OS of: 59, 66, 66, 70. months for FC, chlorambucil, FCR and fludarabine, respectively. In older/unfit patients we noted PFS of: 16, 17, 24, 30, 60. months for chlorambucil, fludarabine and chlorambucil with ofatumumab (OClb) or rituximab (RClb) or obinutuzumab (GClb), respectively. We obtained median OS of: 44, 58, 59 and 90. months for fludarabine, RClb, chlorambucil and GClb, respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest that: (1) FCR has higher potential of preventing CLL progression in younger/fit patients over four therapy options, which were subject of previous meta-analysis but also over bendamustine; (2) in these patients FCR does not entail prolonging of OS in comparison with chlorambucil and it is outperformed by fludarabine; (3) in older/unfit patients GClb demonstrates longer projected PFS than all assessed comparators; (4) in this group GClb has also the highest potential of increasing OS. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.