Wang J.,Nalco Energy Services
Hydrocarbon Processing | Year: 2011
A discussion on advanced control engineering covers automation technology myths; role of process control technology in improving and maintaining efficient process operations; the oil and gas industries' reliance on predictive control (MPC) controllers; techniques that can be applied for advanced process control (APC) and process improvements; advanced control background; APC strategies, e.g., intelligent control, adaptive algorithms, and MPC tied to empirical modeling; expert systems technology; disadvantages, limitations, and misapplication of MPC; the MPC modeling process; MPC for simple control system; the combustion MPC design problem; advanced control challenges; APC engineering management; software packages; control technique standardization; and management concerns.
Lobodin V.V.,Florida State University |
Juyal P.,Florida State University |
Juyal P.,Nalco Energy Services |
McKenna A.M.,Florida State University |
And 2 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2014
Lithium cationization can significantly extend the compositional range for analysis of petroleum components by positive electrospray ionization [(+) ESI], by accessing species that lack a basic nitrogen atom and, hence, are not seen by conventional (+) ESI that relies on protonation as the primary ionization mechanism. Here, various solvent compositions and lithium salts enabled us to optimize ionization by formation of lithium adducts ([M + Li]+), and the results are compared to production of [M + H]+ by conventional (+) ESI with formic acid. Lithium cationization (+) ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) of Athabasca bitumen heavy vacuum gas oil (475-500 °C) and North and South American crude oils demonstrates considerable improvement over protonation for production of ions from compounds belonging to SxOy (SO, SO2, SO3, SO4, S2O, S2O2, etc.) heteroatom classes. Those compounds exhibit much higher affinity for lithium cation than for proton and yield abundant [M + Li]+ ions. Li+ cationization thus opens a pathway for detection and characterization of SxOy class compounds that preferentially concentrate at the interface in oil/water emulsions. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Hilton N.P.,Nalco Energy Services
Hydrocarbon Processing | Year: 2010
Real-time analyzers can provide improved monitoring of chloride levels and enable better corrosion control practices.
Savage G.,Nalco Energy Services
Petroleum Technology Quarterly | Year: 2012
To take advantage of premiums on middle distillates and propylene, refiners are adjusting operations and FCC catalyst formulation, as well as investing in revamps and hydrocrackers. However, there are limitations and additional costs associated with these changes. For most refiners, changes in operations at the FCC unit are essential to optimizing middle distillate and propylene production. Alterations in catalyst formulation, operating conditions, and feed to the FCC unit will produce more light cycle oil. However, many of these changes carry significant risks. Whether the catalyst is reformulated or the gravity of the FCC feed is reduced, the refiner will need to increase metals level monitoring and mitigate the effect of metals poisoning. A number of factors will reduce the stability of slurry and result in increased fouling. Nalco additives for fouling control and metal passivation along with simulation software and tower scanning services have found widespread use in refineries globally. These additives and services have minimal impact on downstream process units while improving operations and reliability, as well as increasing conversion. Nalco dieselisation additives are a cost-effective way to meet middle distillate production goals and minimize the costs of operational changes.
Hwang C.-C.,Rice University |
Jin Z.,Rice University |
Lu W.,Rice University |
Sun Z.,Rice University |
And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2011
Here we report carbon-based composites polyethylenimine-mesocarbon (PEI-CMK-3) and polyvinylamine-mesocarbon (PVA-CMK-3) that can be used to capture and rapidly release CO 2. CO 2 uptake by the synthesized composites was determined using a gravimetric method at 30 °C and 1 atm; the 39% PEI-CMK-3 composite had ∼12 wt % CO 2 uptake capacity and the 37% PVA-CMK-3 composite had ∼13 wt % CO 2 uptake capacity. A desorption temperature of 75 °C was sufficient for regeneration. The CO 2 uptake was the same when using 10% CO 2 in a 90% CH 4, C 2H 6, and C 3H 8 mixture, underscoring this composite's efficacy for CO 2 sequestration from natural gas. © 2011 American Chemical Society.