Faust Jr. M.,Nalco Energy Services |
Weathers Jr. T.,Nalco Energy Services
Proceedings - SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry | Year: 2011
In this report, the development and field deployment of a novel biphasic viscosity reducer will be discussed as a means to enhance production and transport efficiency of high viscosity crude oils while reducing total operating expenditures. Standard flow aids target the root cause of inefficient fluid flow; drag reducers, for example, suppress the turbulence associated with flowing oil, while paraffin inhibitors and asphaltene inhibitors prevent wax crystal or asphaltene particle growth. Biphasic viscosity reducer chemicals target the bulk fluid properties of the crude oil, regardless of the source of viscosity, by dispersing oil into free water, creating a highly flow-able, low apparent viscosity, water external emulsion. Screening tests confirmed the capacity of certain polymers to emulsify heavy oils, with API gravities well below 20, as well as waxy crudes from different locations around the world into 20-25% water solutions, creating stable, water external emulsions. In all cases the emulsion exhibited significant levels of apparent viscosity reduction, generating improved flow-ability in a bench-top flow loop, as well as emulsion resolution under standard field separation conditions including heat and traditional emulsion breaking chemicals. The top-performing products were assessed in a full-scale field trial on a high wax crude oil, where the biphasic viscosity reducer chemical resulted in efficient pressure maintenance for the topsides flow lines over the span of the field trial, significantly reducing operating costs associated with pressure buildup in these lines. Throughout the period of chemical injection, no adverse effects on water quality or oil/water separation were observed at the separation battery. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Lobodin V.V.,Florida State University |
Juyal P.,Florida State University |
Juyal P.,Nalco Energy Services |
McKenna A.M.,Florida State University |
And 2 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2014
Lithium cationization can significantly extend the compositional range for analysis of petroleum components by positive electrospray ionization [(+) ESI], by accessing species that lack a basic nitrogen atom and, hence, are not seen by conventional (+) ESI that relies on protonation as the primary ionization mechanism. Here, various solvent compositions and lithium salts enabled us to optimize ionization by formation of lithium adducts ([M + Li]+), and the results are compared to production of [M + H]+ by conventional (+) ESI with formic acid. Lithium cationization (+) ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) of Athabasca bitumen heavy vacuum gas oil (475-500 °C) and North and South American crude oils demonstrates considerable improvement over protonation for production of ions from compounds belonging to SxOy (SO, SO2, SO3, SO4, S2O, S2O2, etc.) heteroatom classes. Those compounds exhibit much higher affinity for lithium cation than for proton and yield abundant [M + Li]+ ions. Li+ cationization thus opens a pathway for detection and characterization of SxOy class compounds that preferentially concentrate at the interface in oil/water emulsions. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Wang J.,Nalco Energy Services
Hydrocarbon Processing | Year: 2011
A discussion on advanced control engineering covers automation technology myths; role of process control technology in improving and maintaining efficient process operations; the oil and gas industries' reliance on predictive control (MPC) controllers; techniques that can be applied for advanced process control (APC) and process improvements; advanced control background; APC strategies, e.g., intelligent control, adaptive algorithms, and MPC tied to empirical modeling; expert systems technology; disadvantages, limitations, and misapplication of MPC; the MPC modeling process; MPC for simple control system; the combustion MPC design problem; advanced control challenges; APC engineering management; software packages; control technique standardization; and management concerns.
Stratiev D.,Lukoil |
Shishkova I.,Lukoil |
Dinkov R.,Lukoil |
Nikolova R.,University Professor Dr. Assen Zlatarov Burgas |
And 6 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2014
Thirteen vacuum residual oils originating from Russia, Middle East, Asia, and South America were thermally cracked in a modified high-temperature-high- pressure batch autoclave reactor. It was found that the colloidal stability of the vacuum residual oils expressed by S-value was the dominant factor that affected the residue thermal reactivity. SARA analysis data of the residual oils were confirmed to contain insufficient information about residue thermal reactivity and colloidal stability. It was found that the higher the colloidal stability of a residual oil the lower residue thermal reactivity and the steeper colloidal stability reduction during thermal conversion. The asphaltene solubility was found to linearly decrease with the increase of the thermal conversion, while the maltene solubility power did not always decrease with the increase of the thermal conversion for the studied residual oils. Having in mind that the ebullated bed residue hydrocraking H-Oil process is also based on thermal conversion the properties of commercial straight run Urals vacuum residue (UVR), visbreaker residue obtained by thermal cracking of UVR (UVBR), and ebullated bed hydrocracking (H-Oil) unconverted residue were investigated. It was found that asphaltene solubility lowered linearly with increasing of conversion regardless of the process: visbreaking or ebullated bed hydrocracking. The maltene fraction average molecular weight seems to decrease with the increase of the residue thermal conversion processes visbreaking and ebullated hydrocracking as the asphaltene average molecular weight does for the same processes. It was found that the atmospheric gas oil fraction from visbreaker has no negative effect on residual oil colloidal stability while the vacuum gas oil fraction has negative impact on residue stability in both visbreaker and H-Oil unconverted residual oils. The data generated in this work study suggest that the asphaltene solubility has a bigger impact on the residual oil colloidal stability than the maltene solubility power. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hilton N.P.,Nalco Energy Services
Hydrocarbon Processing | Year: 2010
Real-time analyzers can provide improved monitoring of chloride levels and enable better corrosion control practices.
Hwang C.-C.,Rice University |
Jin Z.,Rice University |
Lu W.,Rice University |
Sun Z.,Rice University |
And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2011
Here we report carbon-based composites polyethylenimine-mesocarbon (PEI-CMK-3) and polyvinylamine-mesocarbon (PVA-CMK-3) that can be used to capture and rapidly release CO 2. CO 2 uptake by the synthesized composites was determined using a gravimetric method at 30 °C and 1 atm; the 39% PEI-CMK-3 composite had ∼12 wt % CO 2 uptake capacity and the 37% PVA-CMK-3 composite had ∼13 wt % CO 2 uptake capacity. A desorption temperature of 75 °C was sufficient for regeneration. The CO 2 uptake was the same when using 10% CO 2 in a 90% CH 4, C 2H 6, and C 3H 8 mixture, underscoring this composite's efficacy for CO 2 sequestration from natural gas. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Neilson A.R.,Nalco Energy Services |
Morrison C.F.,Nalco Energy Services
Organic Process Research and Development | Year: 2012
Peroxy radicals formed by the autoxidation of styrene react with 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC) to give a tert-butyl-semiquinone radical. When the TBC radical is generated in the presence of a 2,6-di-tert-butyl-7-substituted quinone methide (QM), the result is o-TBC addition at the 7-position of the QM. The effects of TBC/QM addition are observed during styrene polymerization retarder testing under aerobic conditions for 2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- oxocyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene)acetonitrile (QM-CN), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4- (methoxymethylene)cyclohexa-2,5-dienone (QM-OMe), and 4-benzylidene-2,6-di-tert- butylcyclohexa-2,5-dienone (QM-Ph). Increasing the concentrations of QM-Ph and TBC during aerobic batch styrene polymerization allowed for silica gel chromatography isolation of 5-(tert-butyl)-3-((3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- hydroxyphenyl)(phenyl)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol, a novel compound. Radicals generated by the autoxidation of cumene and by homolysis of dicumylperoxide also activate TBC/QM addition. TBC/QM interaction causes a reduction in the performance of QMs as styrene polymerization retarders under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic test conditions, a better simulation of industrial styrene purification, the TBC/QM interaction leads to only minimal reduction in retarder performance. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Savage G.,Nalco Energy Services
Petroleum Technology Quarterly | Year: 2012
To take advantage of premiums on middle distillates and propylene, refiners are adjusting operations and FCC catalyst formulation, as well as investing in revamps and hydrocrackers. However, there are limitations and additional costs associated with these changes. For most refiners, changes in operations at the FCC unit are essential to optimizing middle distillate and propylene production. Alterations in catalyst formulation, operating conditions, and feed to the FCC unit will produce more light cycle oil. However, many of these changes carry significant risks. Whether the catalyst is reformulated or the gravity of the FCC feed is reduced, the refiner will need to increase metals level monitoring and mitigate the effect of metals poisoning. A number of factors will reduce the stability of slurry and result in increased fouling. Nalco additives for fouling control and metal passivation along with simulation software and tower scanning services have found widespread use in refineries globally. These additives and services have minimal impact on downstream process units while improving operations and reliability, as well as increasing conversion. Nalco dieselisation additives are a cost-effective way to meet middle distillate production goals and minimize the costs of operational changes.
Russell C.A.,Nalco Energy Services |
Crozier S.,Nalco Energy Services |
Sharpe R.,Nalco Energy Services
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2010
Recently, refiners that aggressively process heavy oils and residues have been reporting disappointing profit margins as a consequence of the global economic downturn. The market is expected to recover, but this does not reduce the processing challenges that refiners will face, particularly with the probable implementation of more stringent emission targets. The following paper describes the development of technology to assist refiners to meet these bottom of the barrel upgrading challenges. Feed and residue stream monitoring tools are revealed to successfully and accurately track real unit operating conditions, providing rapid and reproducible data, currently unavailable with traditional methods. Over a stepwise severity increase, parameters of residue stability and insoluble particle content were shown to change systematically: a decrease in stability coupled with an increase in insoluble particulates. A novel feed characterization method based on a unique laboratory pyrolysis system is also described. Stability and insoluble particle data generated from laboratory stream samples exhibit very similar systematic changes to those discovered on the real unit, providing compelling evidence that the laboratory apparatus is providing a representative simulation of field thermal conversion processes, such as visbreakers and cokers. The apparatus also provides an accurate measure of surface deposition over a range of severities. Bulk insoluble particle generation coupled with surface deposition provides a unique set of parameters that describe the fouling potential of individual feeds, with data summarized in a heavy residue fouling matrix. Furthermore, the technique may be used to recommend feed-specific antifoulant additive programs. Such information has the potential to play a key role in reducing refinery energy demands and, therefore, emissions while maintaining or enhancing throughput. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Jordan M.M.,Nalco Energy Services |
Sorhaug E.,Talisman Energy |
Marlow D.,Nalco Energy Services
SPE Production and Operations | Year: 2012
Over the years, environmental legislation has forced changes in the types of scale-inhibitor molecule that can be deployed in certain regions of the world. These regulations have resulted in changes from phosphonate scale inhibitor to polymer-based chemistry, particularly in the Norwegian and UK continental shelf where phosphonates have been either on the substitution list or phased out for many applications. Over the past 10 years, significant improvements in inhibitor properties of the so-called 'green' scale inhibitors have been made. However, for one particular operator, the squeeze application of this green scale inhibitor resulted in poorer than expected treatment lifetimes and significant operating cost because of the frequency ofretreatment. To overcome the increasing operating cost, an evaluation was made of the current treatment chemicals vs. the older, more-established phosphonate scale inhibitors. The results for the laboratory evaluation suggested that the older chemistry would extend treatment life and reduce operating cost. A case was made to the legislative authority, who approved the use of the phosphonate scale inhibitor, and field applications started. The squeeze lifetimes for the red phosphonate chemistry were shown to be significantly better than the existing yellow/green inhibitors. During the following months, other scale inhibitors with improved environmental characteristics were developed and evaluated. One such molecule was shown to have similar coreflood retention to that of the applied red phosphonate and presented no formation damage. This paper presents the laboratory evaluation of the new scale inhibitor, and illustrates the improvement observed with this new inhibitor through field squeeze-treatment results from a well treated with both the red and new yellow environmental profile inhibitor chemicals. This paper outlines the challenges with environmental legislation and how it has been possible to develop technical solutions (in terms of environmental vs. safety issues and with new inhibitor chemicals) to meet the challenges of offshore scale control. © 2012 Society of Petroleum Engineers.