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Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Defense Threat Reduction Agency | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.98K | Year: 2015

The US DoD requires robust ways of neutralizing threats posed by hostile powers and terrorist organizations that may be in possession of dangerous weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). Unfortunately, the weapons currently available to the DoD do not offer a way for the WMD to be destroyed without risking the spread of that material throughout the area. The strategy for the defeat of biological weapons is to use a nanoenergetic formulation (e.g. thermite) that produces high heat in conjunction with a biocide to destroy residual biological agent in the plume. Recent research into HI3O8 has created interest in the material as one that could be formulated to defeat biological weapons. HI3O8 is not commercially available, and its preparation has been a bottleneck for the development of this material into an ordinance item for WMD defeat. For this material to be successfully incorporated into a weapon system, a process must be developed which provides very consistent composition of product and particle size. The main objective of this effort is to develop a cost-beneficial manufacturing processes for producing kilogram quantities of HI3O8 with high purity and small particle size, as well as identify quality assurance measures for its handling and storage.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2016

Current state of the art oxidizers have been in service for decades, leaving the performance of our munitions and propulsion systems unchanged while our tactical objectives have increased in their requirements. Keeping with ongoing changes in the worlds military, maintaining a tactical advantage while meeting or exceeding mission capability requirements is of utmost importance for our nation. As such, the DoD thus requires a new generation of oxidizers with increased performance and reduced sensitivity to thermal, impact and shock stimuli. Specifically, these new oxidizers will have to show an energy greater than HMX while offering a sensitivity profile better than TNT. Moreover, an increase in impulse density and specific impulse (Isp) while offering a long service life is highly desirable especially if the material is also classified as insensitive. A key challenge is the development of novel compounds offering improved performance while maintaining suitable mechanical properties throughout the long service life. The identification, optimization and manufacture of the next generation of oxidizers requires a holistic approach to the problem. Our team will address this opportunity by enabling the rapid development of a new class of energetic oxidizers for propellant formulations.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2016

Current state of the art oxidizers have been in service for decades, leaving the performance of our munitions and propulsion systems unchanged while our tactical objectives have increased in their requirements. Keeping with ongoing changes in the worlds military, maintaining a tactical advantage while meeting or exceeding mission capability requirements is of utmost importance for our nation. As such, the DoD thus requires a new generation of oxidizers with increased performance and reduced sensitivity to thermal, impact and shock stimuli. Specifically, these new oxidizers will have to show an energy greater than HMX while offering a sensitivity profile better than TNT. Moreover, an increase in impulse density and specific impulse (Isp) while offering a long service life is highly desirable especially if the material is also classified as insensitive. A key challenge is the development of novel compounds offering improved performance while maintaining suitable mechanical properties throughout the long service life. The identification, optimization and manufacture of the next generation of oxidizers requires a holistic approach to the problem. Our team will address this opportunity by enabling the rapid development of a new generation of energetic oxidizers for propellant formulations.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.97K | Year: 2014

The treatment of glyoxal with benzyl amine or allyl amine towards the formation of the corresponding tetraazaisowurtzitane cage structure has established a cornerstone in the preparation of caged nitramines and has led to significant research aimed at converting these precursors into compounds of interest such as CL-20. Although a route based on benzyl amine was briefly employed in small commercial settings, severe problems have since forbid the use of this chemistry on large scale. An alternative route to CL-20 employing allyl amine as the ammonia surrogate has been developed and demonstrated by researchers at China Lake. Although these efforts have led to the validation of the chemistry at a lab scale, this sequence of reactions has shown potential to become commercially viable if given a thorough development and evaluation effort, which is the main focus of the proposed work.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.93K | Year: 2014

Preparation of caged nitramines has led to significant research aimed at converting these precursors into compounds of interests such as CL-20. This unique ability highlights the fine balance required from electronic and steric contributions in the formation of the cage structure. We propose to develop a low-cost alternative synthesis of CL-20 based on gaining insight as to the nature of this fine balance.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 898.17K | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: The DoD requires increased performance and increased density solid propellants for use on boost, strategic and tactical missile systems, however, simultaneously attaining higher energy and density while maintaining satisfactory physical properties is an extremely challenging goal. Current ingredients are incapable of imparting the desired performance and insensitivity. Because of sporadic, short-term funding in advanced energetic ingredient research over the past 20 years and the lack of a coordinated, sustained national effort; few new ingredients have surfaced. Concurrently, the level of research effort has declined steadily in the USA and research chemists in this critical defense area represent a declining workforce. Meanwhile, efforts in Russia and the People"s Republic of China have remained high and have accelerated dramatically. In order to meet and compete in this technology challenge, and to avoid technological surprise, focused efforts are needed to identify, synthesize, and characterize new ingredient oxidizers to increase the energy and density of formulated solid propellant mixtures while meeting other required attributes defined by the DoD/NASA/US Industry"s IHPRPT Program Phase III goals and beyond. Nalas is focused on the synthesis of an AP replacement based on the elaboration of the diaminofurazan motif. BENEFIT: Our objectives for Phase II are in continuation with our recent successes and aimed at addressing important technological gaps identified during Phase I. Specifically, we project to synthesize a novel oxidizer and deliver multi-gram quantities to the Air Force Research team. In parallel to these efforts, we will develop innovative methods to produce sustainable processes for the production of DAF and ANF. These deliveries will require the engineering of optimized chemical processes, and answer the problem associated with the supply of these important chemicals. All materials have excellent potential for commercialization to CONUS sources.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 729.84K | Year: 2014

The DoD requires an increase in performance and density of solid propellants for use on boost, strategic and tactical missile systems. Attaining ingredients with higher energy and density while simultaneously maintaining satisfactory physical properties is extremely challenging. Current low-cost oxidizer ingredients such as Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) are incapable of imparting the desired performance and insensitivity. Focused efforts are needed to identify, synthesize, and characterize new ingredient oxidizers that can be produced commercially at low-cost while meeting required attributes such as hazard classification, lifetime, cost, and performance. This proposed effort, lead by Nalas Engineering in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Flanagan Research, focuses on synthesis, characterization, and testing of a novel caged nitramine coined Aurora to determine its viability as a propellant ingredient. In addition to the evaluation of Aurora, Nalas proposes revisiting existing oxidizers using cocrystallization technology. Thus Nalas proposes to synthesize and investigate cocrystals in propellant formulations.


Patent
NALAS Engineering Services Inc. | Date: 2014-08-28

A method to produce and manufacture cocrystals and salts is disclosed wherein crystalline solids and other components were combined in the desired proportions into a mixing chamber and mixed at high intensity to afford a cocrystalline product. No grinding media were required. The mixing system consists of a resonant acoustic vibratory system capable of supplying a large amount of energy to the mixture and is tunable to a desired resonance frequency and amplitude. The use of resonant acoustic mixing to assist cocrystallization is novel. This discovery enables the manufacture of cocrystals and salt forms, simplifying their manufacture and scale-up, and avoiding the use of grinding methods or grinding media. The present invention affords the manufacture of cocrystals and salts on kilogram to multi-ton scale and is adaptable to continuous manufacturing through the use of resonant mixing methods.


Patent
NALAS Engineering Services Inc. | Date: 2015-03-31

A cocrystal of CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) and DNMT (1-methyl-3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole) was formed through a resonant acoustic mixing process. The resulting cocrystal comprised an essentially 1:1 stoichiometric ratio between these coformers. The cocrystal advantageously has decreased sensitivity when compared with a pure CL-20 sample, and maintains thermal stability and comparable energetic performance.


Patent
NALAS Engineering Services Inc. | Date: 2015-03-11

A method to produce and manufacture cocrystals and salts is disclosed wherein crystalline solids and other components were combined in the desired proportions into a mixing chamber and mixed at high intensity to afford a cocrystalline product. No grinding media were required. The mixing system consists of a resonant acoustic vibratory system capable of supplying a large amount of energy to the mixture and is tunable to a desired resonance frequency and amplitude. The use of resonant acoustic mixing to assist cocrystallization is novel. This discovery enables the manufacture of cocrystals and salt forms, simplifying their manufacture and scale-up, and avoiding the use of grinding methods or grinding media. The present invention affords the manufacture of cocrystals and salts on kilogram to multi-ton scale and is adaptable to continuous manufacturing through the use of resonant mixing methods. (Drawing - Fig. 2)

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