Roelofarendsveen, Netherlands


Roelofarendsveen, Netherlands

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Arens P.,Wageningen UR Plant Breeding | Mansilla C.,Technical University of Madrid | Deinum D.,Naktuinbouw | Cavellini L.,Geves Groupe Detude Et Of Controle Des Varietes Et Des Semences | And 10 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2010

Molecular markers linked to phenotypically important traits are of great interest especially when traits are difficult and/or costly to be observed. In tomato where a strong focus on resistance breeding has led to the introgression of several resistance genes, resistance traits have become important characteristics in distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) testing for Plant Breeders Rights (PBR) applications. Evaluation of disease traits in biological assays is not always straightforward because assays are often influenced by environmental factors, and difficulties in scoring exist. In this study, we describe the development and/or evaluation of molecular marker assays for the Verticillium genes Ve1 and Ve2, the tomato mosaic virusTm1 (linked marker), the tomato mosaic virus Tm2 and Tm22 genes, the Meloidogyne incognita Mi1-2 gene, the Fusarium I (linked marker) and I2 loci, which are obligatory traits in PBR testing. The marker assays were evaluated for their robustness in a ring test and then evaluated in a set of varieties. Although in general, results between biological assays and marker assays gave highly correlated results, marker assays showed an advantage over biological tests in that the results were clearer, i.e., homozygote/heterozygote presence of the resistance gene can be detected and heterogeneity in seed lots can be identified readily. Within the UPOV framework for granting of PBR, the markers have the potential to fulfil the requirements needed for implementation in DUS testing of candidate varieties and could complement or may be an alternative to the pathogenesis tests that are carried out at present. © The Author(s) 2009.

Reid A.,SASA | Hof L.,Naktuinbouw | Felix G.,SASA | Rucker B.,Bundessortenamt | And 6 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

The European Union Common Catalogue (EUCC) for potato contains over 1000 varieties. Each year member states add varieties to the list after they have undergone Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) testing according to international guidelines. A rapid and robust method for variety identification to aid the management and maintenance of existing variety collections and for the screening of new candidate varieties would therefore be a highly useful tool for DUS testing stations. A database containing key morphological characteristics and microsatellite data was constructed for varieties on the 2006 list of the EUCC for potato. Rules for scoring SSR markers in different laboratories were established to allow a harmonized scoring of markers. Almost all varieties (99.5%) were shown to have unique molecular profiles and in pair wise comparisons 99.99% of all variety pairs could be distinguished. This clearly shows the versatility of the markers and database for identifying potato samples. © 2011 Crown Copyright.

Bakker D.,Naktuinbouw | Bruinsma M.,Naktuinbouw | Dekter R.W.,Naktuinbouw | Toonen M.A.J.,Naktuinbouw | And 2 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2015

Worldwide outbreaks of pospiviroids in potato and tomato have increased the need for a reliable test for the detection of pospiviroids in seeds. This study describes the development and validation of a sensitive and fast test for the detection of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in tomato seeds. The test is based on RNA isolation using a commercial kit and is suitable for routine application. The test is able to detect one PSTVd or TCDVd contaminated seed in sub samples of 1000 seeds and results were both repeatable and reproducible. © 2015 OEPP/EPPO.

Osman A.M.,Louis Bolk Institute | Bonthuis H.,Naktuinbouw | Van den Brink L.,Wageningen University | Struik P.C.,Wageningen University | And 3 more authors.
Organic Agriculture | Year: 2015

Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU), the mandatory variety testing system for agricultural crops in the European Union (EU), has been used as a policy instrument by favouring the release of variety types that enable socially desirable developments, such as reducing fungicide use. With this paper, we aim to assess whether VCU can be used to enhance the availability of varieties suitable to organic farming. Therefore, we analyse data of an organic spring wheat VCU project that was conducted between 2001 and 2004 at three locations in the Netherlands. Varieties selected through organic VCU were clearly more suitable for organic production than those registered through the conventional procedure. However, new varieties could not match the baking quality of the organic standard variety. We conclude that enhancing the number of suitable varieties for the organic sector requires adapting both conventional breeding programmes as well as the VCU system. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Van Schadewijk A.R.,Dutch Flower Bulb Inspection Service | Meekes E.T.M.,Naktuinbouw | Verbeek M.,Plant Research International | Verhoeven J.T.J.,Plant Protection Service
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Validation of test methods is required for laboratories seeking ISO 17025 accreditation. Recently developed manuals help choosing relevant performance characteristics to be studied for qualitative tests common in plant virus detection. For routine testing in certification schemes additional information on the plant material is important to determine the scope of the accredited application. For application of virus tests for diagnostic purposes the determination of certain performance characteristics is highly recommended. Furthermore, in case of detection of quarantine organisms a confirmation by an alternative test is indispensable.

Meekes E.T.M.,Naktuinbouw | Verbeek M.,Plant Research International
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Although freesia leaf necrosis disease (FLN) is known in freesia cultures for over forty years, the causal agent(s) is/are still under investigation. In plants with FLN symptoms a virus belonging to the genus Ophiovirus was found; this virus is now known as Freesia sneak virus (FreSV). The virus was mechanically inoculated to and artificially maintained in host plants and purified from these plants. An antiserum was raised and an ELISA-based detection method for FreSV was developed. Mechanical inoculation from indicator plants to freesia seedlings was never successful. Transmission of FreSV using resting spores from Olpidium brassicae was tested to establish whether FreSV is the cause of FLN. The detection of FreSV was evaluated in several surveys using freesias with symptoms (66 lots), without symptoms (98 lots) and by random testing (45 lots). More than 40 different cultivars were surveyed. FreSV was found associated with FLN symptoms, although not in all the freesia lots with FLN-like symptoms. In such lots often Freesia mosaic virus (FreMV) was present and in some lots neither FreSV nor FreMV could be detected. Implications of these findings will be discussed.

de Gruyter J.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | de Gruyter J.,National Reference Center | van Gent-Pelzer M.P.E.,Plant Research International BV | Woudenberg J.H.C.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Stagonosporopsis andigena and S. crystalliniformis are serious foliage pathogens on potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). As both species have been recorded only in the Andes area, S. andigena is listed as an A1 quarantine organism in Europe. The actin region of isolates of Stagonosporopsis and allied species of Boeremia, Didymella, Peyronellaea and Phoma was amplified using generic primers. DNA sequence differences of the actin gene were utilised to develop species-specific real-time (TaqMan) PCR assays for the detection of S. andigena and S. crystalliniformis in leaves of potato or tomato. The specificity of the TaqMan PCR assays was determined on genomic DNA extracted from two S. andigena and two S. crystalliniformis isolates and 16 selected isolates of Stagonosporopsis, Phoma and Boeremia, which are the closest relatives. The validation of the methods developed included the DNA extraction and the TaqMan PCR assays. The performance criteria specificity, analytical sensitivity, reproducibility, repeatability and robustness of the TaqMan PCR assays demonstrated the reliability of both methods for the detection of S. andigena and S. crystalliniformis in leaf material. The TaqMan PCR assays were tested on symptomatic leaves of potato and tomato that were obtained after artificial inoculation of detached leaves with both pathogens under quarantine conditions. In the artificial inoculation experiments both S. andigena and S. crystalliniformis caused leaf infections on potato and tomato. © 2012 KNPV.

Verhoeven J.Th.J.,National Reference Center | Roenhorst J.W.,National Reference Center | Hooftman M.,Naktuinbouw | Meekes E.T.M.,Naktuinbouw | And 2 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2015

In symptomless plants of portulaca a potential new pospiviroid was characterized. Analysis by both double and return PAGE showed the presence of a circular RNA. RT-PCR and sequencing revealed a genome of 351 nt with properties characteristic of members of the genus Pospiviroid and with highest sequence identity (circa 80%) with iresine viroid 1 (IrVd-1). The circular RNA from portulaca was shown to replicate independently in its original host, thus showing that it is indeed a viroid. Based on its molecular characteristics, it should be considered a new species. However, since no biological differences have yet been found with its closest relative IrVd-1, the viroid from portulaca does not fulfil all criteria for species demarcation of the ICTV. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

Verhoeven J.T.J.,National Reference Center | Botermans M.,National Reference Center | Meekes E.T.M.,Naktuinbouw | Roenhorst J.W.,National Reference Center
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

In the Netherlands a survey for pospiviroids was performed in ornamental plants from 2006 up to 2011. Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) was the most frequently found pospiviroid, causing infections in Brugmansia sp., Cestrum sp., Lycianthes rantonnetii, Solanum jasminoides and Streptosolen jamesonii. In addition, five other pospiviroids were detected. In 2011 TASVd also was found in tomato plants in a single greenhouse. The genotype of this isolate was identical to the TASVd genotype found most frequently in ornamentals. This indicates that an ornamental species has been the source of inoculum for the tomato crop. © 2012 KNPV.

Wietsma W.A.,V.O.F. de Keizerskroon | Deinum D.,Naktuinbouw | Teunissen H.A.S.,Naktuinbouw | van den Berg R.G.,Wageningen University
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Fritillaria sect. Petilium (Fritillaria L., Liliaceae), consists of four species: F.chitralensis, F. eduardii, F. imperialis and F. raddeana. We studied their phylogenetic relationships with AFLP’s, crossing experiments and morphological observations. The AFLP data confirm that F. eduardii is a separate species and not a variety of F. imperialis. Within F. eduardii the two earlier distinguished varieties can indeed be recognised. Our AFLP results also show that F. chitralensis, originally described as F. imperialis var. chitralensis, is different from F. imperialis and is a species in its own right. The results of the AFLP’s and the crossing experiments show that within F. imperialis two varieties can be recognised, one variety containing representatives that possesses the so called ‘foxy’ smell, and a second variety with odourless representatives. A new name for this odourless variety is proposed. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.

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