Matsumoto K.,Gifu Prefectural Research Institute for Bioengineering |
Yokoyama S.-I.,Gifu Prefectural Research Institute for Bioengineering |
Gato N.,Nakano BC Co.
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2010
The hypolipidemic effects and bile acid-binding properties of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit were examined. In an animal experiment, male C57BL/6.Cr mice (n = 5) were fed an AIN-76-modified high fat diet supplemented with 2% or 5% (w/w) dried young persimmon fruit (YP) for 10 weeks. The intake of YP significantly enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and lowered the concentration of hepatic lipids and plasma cholesterol. Analysis of gene expression in liver tissue showed that 2% or 5% YP up-regulated the expression of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 gene. In the 5% group, there were increased expressions of the genes for cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Next, the bile acid-binding ability of YP was analysed in vitro using cholic acid (CA). In 100-2000 μM CA solutions, 1% (w/v) YP adsorbed approximately 60% of CA, while dried mature persimmon fruit adsorbed approximately 20% of CA. The positive control, cholestyramine, adsorbed approximately 80% of CA in the 100-2000 μM CA solutions. A crude tannin extract from YP, which contained 54.7% condensed tannins, adsorbed approximately 78% of CA in the 2000 μM CA solutions. These results suggest that the ability of YP to bind bile acid contributes to its hypolipidemic effect in mice. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nakano BC Co. | Date: 2015-02-03
Tamura M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Ohnishi Y.,Nakano BC Co. |
Kotani T.,Nakano BC Co. |
Gato N.,Nakano BC Co.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011
Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final day of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Tsuchida Y.,Japanese Apricot Laboratory |
Yakushiji H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Oe T.,Japanese Apricot Laboratory |
Negoro K.,Japanese Apricot Laboratory |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2014
Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Siebold & zucc.) fruits of 'Nanko' have softer flesh than those of 'Gojiro'. Therefore, there are differences in the processability of these cultivars. We investigated the characteristics of cell-wall polysaccharide degradation that significantly affects fruit firmness in these 2 cultivars at unripe, ripe, and drop stages. Fruit firmness of 'Gojiro' was maintained during unripe and ripe stages and decreased after the ripe stage, while that of 'Nanko' decreased constantly and was lower than that of 'Gojiro' at ripe and drop stages. Amount of the pectin and the hemicellulose substances decreased commonly in 'Gojiro' and 'Nanko' in the process of fruit softening, in addition, decrease in mol wt of these polysaccharides significantly synchronized with decrease in fruit firmness, suggesting that degradation of the pectin and the hemicellulose cause the softening of Japanese apricot fruits. The amount of neutral sugar (NS) and uronic acid (UA) in the pectin fraction and NS in the hemicellulose fraction in 'Nanko' decreased more than in 'Gojiro'. Moreover, the cellulose content of 'Nanko' decreased during the fruit-softening process. These results suggest that higher degradation of pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose in 'Nanko' fruits would result in softer fruits than 'Gojiro'. © 2014 The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science (JSHS), All right reserved.
Gato N.,Nakano BC Co. |
Kadowaki A.,Nakano BC Co. |
Hashimoto N.,Nakano BC Co. |
Yokoyama S.-I.,Gifu Prefectural Government |
Matsumoto K.,Ishikawa Prefectural University
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2013
Bile acid-binding agents are known to lower blood cholesterol levels and have been clinically used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. We previously showed that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruits had bile acid-binding properties. In this study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of tannin-rich fiber in humans. The subjects (n = 40, plasma total cholesterol levels 180-259 mg/dl) were divided into 3 groups and ingested cookie bars containing 0 g (placebo group, n = 14), 3 g (low-dose group, n = 13), or 5 g (high-dose group, n = 13) of tannin-rich fiber 3 times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the low-dose (12 weeks, p < 0.005) and high-dose (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001) groups. In addition, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the high-dose group (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001). These improvements were not accompanied by changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. Our findings indicate that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon fruits is a useful food material for treating hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.