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Nagoya, Japan

Nagoya University , abbreviated to Meidai , is a Japanese national university headquartered in Chikusa-ku, Nagoya. It is the last Imperial University in Japan and among the National Seven Universities. It is the 4th best ranked higher education institution in Japan.As of 2014, six faculty and alumni of the university have won the Nobel Prize in science. Wikipedia.


Although the neurodevelopmental and genetic underpinnings of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been investigated, the etiology of the disorder has remained elusive, and clinical diagnosis continues to rely on symptom-based criteria. In this study, to classify both control subjects and a large sample of patients with ASD, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and a neural network. Imaging data from 312 subjects with ASD and 328 subjects with typical development was downloaded from the multi-center research project. Only subjects under 20 years of age were included in this analysis. Correlation matrices computed from rs-fMRI time-series data were entered into a probabilistic neural network (PNN) for classification. The PNN classified the two groups with approximately 90% accuracy (sensitivity=92%, specificity=87%). The accuracy of classification did not differ among the institutes, or with respect to experimental and imaging conditions, sex, handedness, or intellectual level. Medication status and degree of head movement did not affect accuracy values. The present study indicates that an intrinsic connectivity matrix produced from rs-fMRI data could yield a possible biomarker of ASD. These results support the view that altered network connectivity within the brain contributes to the neurobiology of ASD. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yamamoto Y.,Nagoya University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Transition-metal (TM)-catalyzed hydroarylation reactions of alkynes have received much attention, because they enable the net insertion of alkyne C-C triple bonds into C-H bonds of aromatic precursors, resulting in regio- and stereo-selective formation of synthetically useful arylalkenes. Taking advantage of this feature, TM-catalyzed alkyne hydroarylations have been successfully used for the synthesis of heterocycles. TM-catalyzed alkyne hydroarylations can be classified into three major categories depending on the type of reaction and precursors involved: (1) palladium-catalyzed reductive Heck reactions of alkynes with aryl halides, (2) TM-catalyzed conjugate arylation reactions of activated alkynes with arylboronic acids, and (3) TM-catalyzed aromatic C-H alkenylations with alkynes. This review surveys heterocycle synthesis via TM-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes according to the above classification, with an emphasis on the scope and limitations, as well as the underlying mechanisms. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


We show that complete positivity is not only sufficient but also necessary for the validity of the quantum data-processing inequality. As a consequence, the reduced dynamics of a quantum system are completely positive, even in the presence of initial correlations with its surrounding environment, if and only if such correlations do not allow any anomalous backward flow of information from the environment to the system. Our approach provides an intuitive information-theoretic framework to unify and extend a number of previous results. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Seki T.,Nagoya University
Macromolecular Rapid Communications | Year: 2014

Photoresponsive azobenzene-containing systems ranging from molecular to macroscopic material levels have greatly been increasing their significance in materials chemistry. This review focuses on the studies on light induced or triggered motions in azobenzene liquid crystalline (LC) polymer films at mesoscopic and microscopic levels. Due to the cooperative nature of liquid crystalline materials, highly efficient photoalignment and photo-triggered migrating motions are realized in mostly repeated manners. Here, recent advances in surface-grafted LC polymer brushes, LC block copolymer films, and LC polymer films that exhibit mass migrations are overviewed. Such newly emerged photoresponsive systems are expected to provide new possibilities and applications in polymer thin film technologies. Due to the cooperative nature of liquid crystalline materials, highly efficient photoalignment and phototriggered migrating motions are realized. This review article focuses on the studies on photoinduced and photo-triggered motions in azobenzene liquid crystalline polymer films at mesoscopic and microscopic levels. Such newly emerged photoresponsive systems are expected to provide new possibilities and applications in polymer thin film technologies. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Buscemi F.,Nagoya University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Departing from the usual paradigm of local operations and classical communication adopted in entanglement theory, we study here the interconversion of quantum states by means of local operations and shared randomness. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such a transformation between two given quantum states is given in terms of the payoff they yield in a suitable class of nonlocal games. It is shown that, as a consequence of our result, such a class of nonlocal games is able to witness quantum entanglement, however weak, and reveal nonlocality in any entangled quantum state. An example illustrating this fact is provided. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

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