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Nagoya-shi, Japan

Nakazawa H.,Nagoya Radiosurgery Center
Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi | Year: 2012

We use Novalis Body system for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung and liver tumors. Novalis system is dedicated to SBRT with image-guided patient setup system ExacTrac. The spinal bone is the main landmark in patient setup during SBRT using ExacTrac kV X-ray system. When the target tumor is located laterally distant from the spinal bone at the midline, it is difficult to ensure the accuracy of the setup, especially if there are rotational gaps (yaw, pitch and roll) in the setup. For this, we resolve the problem by using a virtual isocenter (VIC) different from isocenter (IC) .We evaluated the setup accuracy in a rand phantom by using VIC and checked the setup errors using rand phantom and patient cases by our original method during the setup for IC. The accuracy of setup using VIC was less than 1.0 mm. Our original method was useful for checking patient setup when VIC used. Source

Miyakawa A.,Nagoya City University | Shibamoto Y.,Nagoya City University | Kosaki K.,Nagoya City University | Hashizume C.,Nagoya Radiosurgery Center
Cancer Science | Year: 2013

To investigate the possible influences of various factors on tumor response to radiation, regression speeds and long-term local control rates of primary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung after stereotactic body radiotherapy were evaluated. Ninety-one patients (65 men and 26 women) with a median age of 76 years were serially examined using computed tomography at 2, 4 and 6 months after treatment. Tumor histology was adenocarcinoma in 62 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 29 patients. The prescribed dose was 48 Gy in four fractions given twice a week for T1 tumors (≤3 cm) and 52 Gy in four fractions given twice a week for T2 tumors (3-5 cm). Tumor shrinkage speed and 3-year local control rates were similar between T1 and T2 tumors and between patients with normal pulmonary function and those with impaired function. Squamous cell carcinomas shrank faster than adenocarcinomas at 2 and 4 months after radiation, but mean relative tumor size at 6 months and local control rates at 3 years did not differ significantly between the two histologies. Tumors in patients with a higher hemoglobin level tended to shrink faster but the control rates were not different. It is concluded that, although squamous cell carcinoma shrinks faster than adenocarcinoma, the two types of lung cancer are of similar radiosensitivity in terms of long-term control rates. Radiosensitivity should not be evaluated by early tumor response. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association. Source

Hasegawa T.,Gamma Knife Center | Kobayashi T.,Nagoya Radiosurgery Center | Kida Y.,Gamma Knife Center
Neurosurgery | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To determine the limiting dose to the optic apparatus in single-fraction irradiation in patients with craniopharyngioma treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS). METHODS: One hundred patients with 109 craniopharyngiomas treated with GKRS were evaluated with a median follow-up period of 68 months. Tumor volume varied from 0.1 to 36.0 (median, 3.3) cm. Marginal doses varied from 10 to 18 (median, 11.4) Gy. Maximum dose to any part of the optic apparatus varied from 2 to 18 (median, 10) Gy. RESULTS: The actuarial 5- and 10-year overall rates of survival of tumor progression after GKRS were 93% and 88%, respectively. Similarly, the actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 62% and 52%, respectively. Among 94 patients in whom visual function was evaluable after GKRS, only 3 patients developed radiation-induced optic neuropathy, indicating an overall Kaplan-Meier radiation-induced optic neuropathy rate of 5%. Of these patients, 2 received 15 Gy or greater to the optic apparatus. Another patient who received 8 Gy or less had undergone previous fractionated radiation therapy with a biologically effective dose of 60 Gy. CONCLUSION: The optic apparatus seems to be more tolerant of irradiation than previously thought. Careful dose planning is essential, particularly in patients who underwent prior external beam radiation therapy. Copyright © 2010 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Source

Yamamoto M.,Katsuta Hospital Mito Gamma House | Serizawa T.,Tokyo Gamma Unit Center | Shuto T.,Yokohama Rosai Hospital | Akabane A.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | And 29 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: We aimed to examine whether stereotactic radiosurgery without whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) as the initial treatment for patients with five to ten brain metastases is non-inferior to that for patients with two to four brain metastases in terms of overall survival. Methods: This prospective observational study enrolled patients with one to ten newly diagnosed brain metastases (largest tumour <10 mL in volume and <3 cm in longest diameter; total cumulative volume ≤15 mL) and a Karnofsky performance status score of 70 or higher from 23 facilities in Japan. Standard stereotactic radiosurgery procedures were used in all patients; tumour volumes smaller than 4 mL were irradiated with 22 Gy at the lesion periphery and those that were 4-10 mL with 20 Gy. The primary endpoint was overall survival, for which the non-inferiority margin for the comparison of outcomes in patients with two to four brain metastases with those of patients with five to ten brain metastases was set as the value of the upper 95% CI for a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·30, and all data were analysed by intention to treat. The study was finalised on Dec 31, 2012, for analysis of the primary endpoint however, monitoring of stereotactic radiosurgery-induced complications and neurocognitive function assessment will continue for the censored subset until the end of 2014. This study is registered with the University Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry, number 000001812. Findings: We enrolled 1194 eligible patients between March 1, 2009, and Feb 15, 2012. Median overall survival after stereotactic radiosurgery was 13·9 months [95% CI 12·0-15·6] in the 455 patients with one tumour, 10·8 months [9·4-12·4] in the 531 patients with two to four tumours, and 10·8 months [9·1-12·7] in the 208 patients with five to ten tumours. Overall survival did not differ between the patients with two to four tumours and those with five to ten (HR 0·97, 95% CI 0·81-1·18 [less than non-inferiority margin], p=0·78; pnon-inferiority<0·0001). Stereotactic radiosurgery-induced adverse events occurred in 101 (8%) patients; nine (2%) patients with one tumour had one or more grade 3-4 event compared with 13 (2%) patients with two to four tumours and six (3%) patients with five to ten tumours. The proportion of patients who had one or more treatment-related adverse event of any grade did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients with multiple tumours (50 [9%] patients with two to four tumours vs 18 [9%] with five to ten; p=0·89). Four patients died, mainly of complications relating to stereotactic radiosurgery (two with one tumour and one each in the other two groups). Interpretation: Our results suggest that stereotactic radiosurgery without WBRT in patients with five to ten brain metastases is non-inferior to that in patients with two to four brain metastases. Considering the minimal invasiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery and the fewer side-effects than with WBRT, stereotactic radiosurgery might be a suitable alternative for patients with up to ten brain metastases. Funding: Japan Brain Foundation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kosaki K.,Nagoya City University | Shibamoto Y.,Nagoya City University | Hirai T.,Heisei Memorial Hospital | Hatano M.,Heisei Memorial Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Science | Year: 2012

Regression curves and local control rates of brain metastases after gamma knife treatment were evaluated to investigate differences in tumor response to radiation. A total of 203 metastases were serially evaluated using contrast-enhanced MRI (or computed tomography) at 1, 2, 3, 4.5 and 6 months after a 20-Gy dose. Differences were evaluated in regression curves and control rates between tumors ≥10 mm and tumors <10 mm in mean diameter, among three major histological subtypes of lung cancer, among adenocarcinomas of the lung, breast and colorectum, and between tumors in patients with above and below median hemoglobin levels. Smaller tumors shrank faster and yielded better control rates than larger tumors. Metastases from small cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung shrank faster than those from lung adenocarcinoma, but 6-month control rates were not different. Breast adenocarcinomas tended to shrink faster than lung adenocarcinomas, but the control rates were not different among adenocarcinomas of the lung, breast and colorectum. Tumors in patients with higher hemoglobin levels tended to shrink faster but the control rates were not different. Small cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung regress more rapidly than adenocarcinomas, although local control rates might not differ significantly. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association. Source

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