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Koyama T.,Nagoya University | Yoshinaga M.,Meijo University | Hayashi H.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Maeda K.-I.,Nagoya University | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2013

Green façades have long been used to reduce the overheating of buildings by excessive solar gain, but little research attention has been paid to the plant traits that reduce the surface temperature of urban structures. This study aimed to identify the key traits contributing to the cooling effects of green façades by comparing five vine plant species. The vines were trained to climb a plastic net that was attached on the freestanding walls under outdoor conditions. One of the walls was not covered with plants to serve as control. We measured the longest vine length, total number of leaves, percentage coverage, leaf transpiration rate, leaf solar transmittance, wall surface temperatures, global solar radiation on a vertical south surface (GSR) and ambient temperature. We identified the percentage coverage as the key trait determining the overall cooling effect: a statistically positive relationship (P<0.001) was identified between the percentage coverage and the wall surface temperature reduction (WTR; the wall surface temperature differences between the non-covered wall and the covered wall) under GSR of more than 0.1kWm-2. The percentage coverage was in turn found to be determined by the vine length. We also found that genotypic differences in WTRs that were not explained by those in the percentage coverage were related to those in leaf solar transmittance, indicating that this trait also contributed to the cooling effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Cheng D.F.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Yagihashi M.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Hozumi A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2011

Hard and transparent alumina (Al2O3) films with thicknesses in the range of 500 nm to 5 μm were successfully formed on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) surfaces. Our process is based on a lamination of anodized aluminum membranes (AAMs) to the polymer surfaces, followed by chemical etching. Because of capillary force, molten PS and liquid PMMA precursor were successfully pulled into the nanopores (10 nm diameter) within the Al2O3 layers and solidified by cooling or polymerization, respectively. Our resulting AAM-laminated surfaces exhibited excellent adhesion and surface mechanical properties similar to those of fused silica, remaining crack-free and transparent even with Al 2O3 thicknesses exceeding 1 μm. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Cheng D.F.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Urata C.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Yagihashi M.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Hozumi A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Nonstick: Dynamically oleophobic surfaces have been produced from low-molecular-weight poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) brush films. Despite the statically oleophilic nature of these nonroughened, nonperfluorinated surfaces, ultralow tilt angles (TAs) that set drops of various nonpolar liquids in motion were achieved. Heating the surfaces enhances droplet mobility by significantly reducing the TAs (see scheme; CA=contact angle). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Niwa M.,Tottori University | Niwa M.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Katada N.,Tottori University
Chemical Record | Year: 2013

In this review, a method for the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of ammonia experiment for the characterization of zeolite acidity and its improvement by simultaneous IR measurement and DFT calculation are described. First, various methods of ammonia TPD are explained, since the measurements have been conducted under the concepts of kinetics, equilibrium, or diffusion control. It is however emphasized that the ubiquitous TPD experiment is governed by the equilibrium between ammonia molecules in the gas phase and on the surface. Therefore, a method to measure quantitatively the strength of the acid site (â̂†H upon ammonia desorption) under equilibrium- controlled conditions is elucidated. Then, a quantitative relationship between â̂†H and H0 function is proposed, based on which the acid strength â̂†H can be converted into the H0 function. The identification of the desorption peaks and the quantitative measurement of the number of acid sites are then explained. In order to overcome a serious disadvantage of the method (i.e., no information is provided about the structure of acid sites), the simultaneous measurement of IR spectroscopy with ammonia TPD, named IRMS-TPD (infrared spectroscopy/mass spectrometry-temperature-programmed desorption), is proposed. Based on this improved measurement, Brønsted and Lewis acid sites were differentiated and the distribution of Brønsted OH was revealed. The acidity characterized by IRMS-TPD was further supported by the theoretical DFT calculation. Thus, the advanced study of zeolite acidity at the molecular level was made possible. Advantages and disadvantages of the ammonia TPD experiment are discussed, and understanding of the catalytic cracking activity based on the derived acidic profile is explained. A method of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of ammonia is described for the characterization of zeolite acidity and its improvement by simultaneous IR measurement and DFT calculation. The advantages and disadvantages of the ammonia TPD experiment are discussed, and understanding of the catalytic cracking activity based on the derived acidic profile is explained. Copyright © 2013 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Lu W.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Kuwabara J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Iijima T.,Sumitomo Chemical | Higashimura H.,Sumitomo Chemical | And 2 more authors.
Macromolecules | Year: 2012

Polycondensation via direct arylation of tetrafluorobenzene or octafluorobiphenyl was investigated for the synthesis of π-conjugated polymers consisting of fluorinated arylene units. The optimization of reaction conditions revealed that a combination of Pd(OAc) 2 and P tBu 2Me-HBF 4 is the most efficient catalytic system for the polycondensation reactions. The polycondensation reactions produced four types of π-conjugated polymers having low highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels due to the strong electron-withdrawing nature of the fluorine substituents. Owing to the low HOMO levels, the synthesized polymers served as an efficient hole-blocking layer (HBL) in OLEDs. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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