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Koyama T.,Nagoya University | Yoshinaga M.,Meijo University | Hayashi H.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Maeda K.-I.,Nagoya University | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2013

Green façades have long been used to reduce the overheating of buildings by excessive solar gain, but little research attention has been paid to the plant traits that reduce the surface temperature of urban structures. This study aimed to identify the key traits contributing to the cooling effects of green façades by comparing five vine plant species. The vines were trained to climb a plastic net that was attached on the freestanding walls under outdoor conditions. One of the walls was not covered with plants to serve as control. We measured the longest vine length, total number of leaves, percentage coverage, leaf transpiration rate, leaf solar transmittance, wall surface temperatures, global solar radiation on a vertical south surface (GSR) and ambient temperature. We identified the percentage coverage as the key trait determining the overall cooling effect: a statistically positive relationship (P<0.001) was identified between the percentage coverage and the wall surface temperature reduction (WTR; the wall surface temperature differences between the non-covered wall and the covered wall) under GSR of more than 0.1kWm-2. The percentage coverage was in turn found to be determined by the vine length. We also found that genotypic differences in WTRs that were not explained by those in the percentage coverage were related to those in leaf solar transmittance, indicating that this trait also contributed to the cooling effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Niwa M.,Tottori University | Niwa M.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Katada N.,Tottori University
Chemical Record | Year: 2013

In this review, a method for the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of ammonia experiment for the characterization of zeolite acidity and its improvement by simultaneous IR measurement and DFT calculation are described. First, various methods of ammonia TPD are explained, since the measurements have been conducted under the concepts of kinetics, equilibrium, or diffusion control. It is however emphasized that the ubiquitous TPD experiment is governed by the equilibrium between ammonia molecules in the gas phase and on the surface. Therefore, a method to measure quantitatively the strength of the acid site (â̂†H upon ammonia desorption) under equilibrium- controlled conditions is elucidated. Then, a quantitative relationship between â̂†H and H0 function is proposed, based on which the acid strength â̂†H can be converted into the H0 function. The identification of the desorption peaks and the quantitative measurement of the number of acid sites are then explained. In order to overcome a serious disadvantage of the method (i.e., no information is provided about the structure of acid sites), the simultaneous measurement of IR spectroscopy with ammonia TPD, named IRMS-TPD (infrared spectroscopy/mass spectrometry-temperature-programmed desorption), is proposed. Based on this improved measurement, Brønsted and Lewis acid sites were differentiated and the distribution of Brønsted OH was revealed. The acidity characterized by IRMS-TPD was further supported by the theoretical DFT calculation. Thus, the advanced study of zeolite acidity at the molecular level was made possible. Advantages and disadvantages of the ammonia TPD experiment are discussed, and understanding of the catalytic cracking activity based on the derived acidic profile is explained. A method of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of ammonia is described for the characterization of zeolite acidity and its improvement by simultaneous IR measurement and DFT calculation. The advantages and disadvantages of the ammonia TPD experiment are discussed, and understanding of the catalytic cracking activity based on the derived acidic profile is explained. Copyright © 2013 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Hozumi A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Cheng D.F.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Yagihashi M.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2011

Dynamic wettability of oxidized metal (aluminum and titanium) surfaces could be tuned by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H). This facile CVD method produces not only monomeric layers but also particulate films by changing the CVD temperature, resulting in a marked difference in the final wetting properties. In the samples prepared at 80°C for ~3days, D4H layers with thicknesses of ~0.5nm were formed on the surfaces without discernible change in surface morphology, as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. After this D4H monomeric layer formation, the hydrophilic oxidized aluminum and titanium surfaces became hydrophobic (advancing/receding water contact angles (θA/θR)=102-104°/99-102°) showing essentially negligible contact angle hysteresis. Performing CVD of D4H at 180°C for ~1day produced opaque film with particulate morphologies with diameters in the range of 500nm to 4μm observed on the surfaces. This geometric morphology enhanced the surface hydrophobicity (θA/θR=163°/160-161°). Droplets on these negligible-hysteresis surfaces moved very easily without " pinning". © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Cheng D.F.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Yagihashi M.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Hozumi A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2011

Hard and transparent alumina (Al2O3) films with thicknesses in the range of 500 nm to 5 μm were successfully formed on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) surfaces. Our process is based on a lamination of anodized aluminum membranes (AAMs) to the polymer surfaces, followed by chemical etching. Because of capillary force, molten PS and liquid PMMA precursor were successfully pulled into the nanopores (10 nm diameter) within the Al2O3 layers and solidified by cooling or polymerization, respectively. Our resulting AAM-laminated surfaces exhibited excellent adhesion and surface mechanical properties similar to those of fused silica, remaining crack-free and transparent even with Al 2O3 thicknesses exceeding 1 μm. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Hayashi H.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Koizumi T.-A.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Heterocycles | Year: 2016

The chemical properties of promazine oxide (Prom-O) and promazine (Prom) were compared. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments showed a higher oxidation potential of Prom-O compared to that of Prom. The results of CV measurements also suggested the potential applicability of Prom-O as an n-type semiconductor. © 2016 The Japan Institute of Heterocyclic Chemistry.


Cheng D.F.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Urata C.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Yagihashi M.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Hozumi A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Nonstick: Dynamically oleophobic surfaces have been produced from low-molecular-weight poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) brush films. Despite the statically oleophilic nature of these nonroughened, nonperfluorinated surfaces, ultralow tilt angles (TAs) that set drops of various nonpolar liquids in motion were achieved. Heating the surfaces enhances droplet mobility by significantly reducing the TAs (see scheme; CA=contact angle). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Lu W.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Kuwabara J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Iijima T.,Sumitomo Chemical | Higashimura H.,Sumitomo Chemical | And 2 more authors.
Macromolecules | Year: 2012

Polycondensation via direct arylation of tetrafluorobenzene or octafluorobiphenyl was investigated for the synthesis of π-conjugated polymers consisting of fluorinated arylene units. The optimization of reaction conditions revealed that a combination of Pd(OAc) 2 and P tBu 2Me-HBF 4 is the most efficient catalytic system for the polycondensation reactions. The polycondensation reactions produced four types of π-conjugated polymers having low highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels due to the strong electron-withdrawing nature of the fluorine substituents. Owing to the low HOMO levels, the synthesized polymers served as an efficient hole-blocking layer (HBL) in OLEDs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Kinoshita T.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Nii S.,Nagoya University
Solvent Extraction Research and Development | Year: 2012

Foam separation has been applied to recover or remove various substances from dilute aqueous solutions in various industries because it is an environment- and cost-friendly process. The literature has been reviewed focusing on the separation of metal ions. From an operational point of view, various methods are discussed for the removal of metal ions from solution, and on the selective recovery of a specific target metal ion. The former applications are designed to purify industrial effluents, and the performance of foam separation is well proven. The latter examples are aimed at recovering valuable metals, which has been shown to be difficult due to the inherent problem of contamination in foam separation. An operation mode was developed to overcome this problem and to enhance the selectivity for separating a specific target metal from solutions containing multi-metals. The method, called continuous counter-current foam separation, was developed, and its performance was demonstrated by the experimental results for Ga(III) separation. Since both high selectivity and recovery was obtained by this method, foam separation is potentially a "solvent-free" alternative to solvent extraction.


Fujinami Y.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Kuwabara J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Lu W.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Hayashi H.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Kanbara T.,The Interdisciplinary Center
ACS Macro Letters | Year: 2012

Polycondensation via direct C-H arylation of thiophene derivatives gave thiophene- and bithiophene-based alternating copolymers in good yields. The optimization of the reaction conditions was investigated in terms of a catalytic system and reaction time. Under optimized conditions, the polycondensation reaction of 3,3',4,4'-tetramethylbithiophene with 2,7-dibromo- 9,9-dioctylfluorene gave poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-5,5'-(3,3',4,4'- tetramethyl-2,2'-bithiophene)] with a molecular weight of 31 800 in 91% yield. The polycondensation reaction proceeded with 2 mol % of Pd(OAc) 2 without the addition of a phosphine ligand in a short reaction time (3 h). Six kinds of π-conjugated polymers were synthesized by the polycondensation reaction without the use of bifunctional organometallic reagents as monomers. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Yoshimura K.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Nakano K.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Okamoto K.,Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute | Miyake T.,Gifu University
Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical | Year: 2012

Mechanical and electrical properties of Ketjenblack/silicone-rubber porous composites having 68-81% porosity were investigated. The porous composites had 1-6% compressive elastic moduli of composites having the same integrant without pores. The resistivity of the porous composite, under compression, monotonously decreased in a wide strain range (0-80%), while in a narrow range (0-10%) in the case of the composites without pores. Moreover, under cyclic compression, resistivity hysteresis was smaller in the case of porous composites compared to the case of composites without pores. These facts show that the porous composites are promising tactile sensor materials applicable to delicate or brittle objects. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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