Yanagihara M.,Nagoya University |
Kato H.,Nagoya Keizai University
Studies in Regional Science | Year: 2013
Public firms have shown trends toward privatization since the 1980s. Many privatized firms often exit the market in rural areas because of low profitability. Nevertheless, no theoretical studies on privatization have paid attention to problems caused by the exit of privatized firms. Therefore, in view of exit problems, this paper investigates the effects of privatization on consumer surplus, producer surplus and social welfare in a two region model with different scales of markets. We assume that a public firm and private firms supply goods under a Cournot-Nash competition in region A with a large-scale of market and the public firm monopolistically supplies goods in region B with a small-scale of market. Under this setting, this paper considers the possibility for exit from the smaller market after privatization of the public firm. Therefore, we consider three cases: i "a mixed-oligopoly and monopoly" where the public firm is not privatized, ii "privatization and monopoly" that chooses privatization and continues to supply goods to both regions, and iii "privatization and exit" that chooses privatization and exits from the smaller market. We examine the effects of privatization by comparing the above three equilibria. The results obtained are as follows. First, consumer surplus is the largest in "a mixed-oligopoly and monopoly" case. Second, from the viewpoint of producer surplus, privatization is always preferable and does not depend on whether a privatized firm exits. Third, the effects of privatization on social welfare depend not only on the scales of the markets of the two regions but also on whether the level of the fixed costs is large. That is, if the market size in region B is sufficiently small or the fixed costs are sufficiently expensive, privatization is desirable from the viewpoint of social welfare. This result implies that the public firm should be privatized under conditions of underpopulation in rural areas or for industries with heavy fixed costs.
Fukutomi T.,Asuke Hospital 20 |
Takeda Y.,Nagoya City University |
Suzuki S.,Nagoya City University |
Ito T.,Nagoya City University |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2010
Although a low level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, few available agents are capable of significantly increasing HDL-C. This multicenter study demonstrated that administration of pitavastatin, a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, significantly and persistently increased HDL-C (from 36.0 ± 5.9 to 40.5 ± 9.1 mg/dL: p < 0.001) and apolipoprotein A-I levels (from 108.4 ± 18.0 to 118.7 ± 19.3 mg/dL: p < 0.01) in 43 hypercholesterolemic patients with low HDL-C over the course of 12 months of treatment. This suggests that pitavastatin may contribute to reduction in coronary heart disease. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watanabe N.,Nagoya City University |
Furukawa T.A.,Nagoya City University |
Chen J.,Nagoya City University |
Kinoshita Y.,Nagoya City University |
And 5 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2010
Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders. The efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been examined but to date its effects on Quality of Life (QoL) have not been appropriately evaluated especially in the long term.The study aimed to examine, in the long term, what aspects of Quality of Life (QoL) changed among social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients treated with group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and what predictors at baseline were associated with QoL.Methods: Outpatients diagnosed with SAD were enrolled into group CBT, and assessed at follow-ups for up to 12 months in a typical clinical setting. QoL was evaluated using the Short Form 36. Various aspects of SAD symptomatology were also assessed. Each of the QoL domains and scores on symptomatology were quantified and compared with those at baseline. Baseline predictors of QoL outcomes at follow-up were investigated.Results: Fifty-seven outpatients were enrolled into group CBT for SAD, 48 completed the whole program, and 44 and 40 completed assessments at the 3-month and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. All aspects of SAD symptomatology and psychological subscales of the QoL showed statistically significant improvement throughout follow-ups for up to 12 months. In terms of social functioning, no statistically significant improvement was observed at either follow-up point except for post-treatment. No consistently significant pre-treatment predictors were observed.Conclusions: After group CBT, SAD symptomatology and some aspects of QoL improved and this improvement was maintained for up to 12 months, but the social functioning domain did not prove any significant change statistically. Considering the limited effects of CBT on QoL, especially for social functioning, more powerful treatments are needed. © 2010 Watanabe et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Suzuki Y.,Nagoya Keizai University |
Isemura M.,University of Shizuoka
Biomedical Research (Japan) | Year: 2013
Green tea and tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been shown to have various health benefits including anti-cancer, anti-metastasis, and anti-cardiovascular disease effects. Our previous studies demonstrated that three plasma proteins, fibronectin, histidine-rich glycoprotein, and fibrinogen were bound by EGCG, and that one specific domain in fibronectin was responsible for its binding interaction with EGCG. Fibrinogen consists of 6 chains linked by the disulfide bonds of two each of the α-, β-, and γ-chains. The present study examined whether fibrinogen had a specific domain interacting with EGCG. The results of affinity chromatography under reducing conditions demonstrated that each of the α-, β-, and γ-subunit chains of fibrinogen was bound by EGCG. We also demonstrated that several peptides generated by treatment with cyanogen bromide or thermolysin were bound by EGCG. The amino acid sequences analyzed revealed that these peptides included those derived from the α-, β-, and γ-chains of fibrinogen. EGCG inhibited the spreading of mouse metastatic LL2-Lu3 lung cancer cells on the fibrinogen substratum, which suggested an impairment in the interaction between cancer cells and fibrinogen. Since the interaction between cancer cells and fibrinogen plays an important role in metastasis, the present results suggest, at least partially, that EGCG inhibited metastasis in the mouse models reported previously by inhibiting such an interaction.
Rao T.P.,Taiyo Kagaku R and D |
Hayakawa M.,Nagoya Keizai University |
Minami T.,Taiyo Kagaku R and D |
Ishihara N.,Taiyo Kagaku R and D |
And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015
Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre, has been shown to provide many health benefits. Previous studies had suggested that the combination of PHGG with protein provided a significant satiation effect on visual analogue scales (VAS). What was lacking was only the effect of administration of small doses of PHGG on post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake. The objectives of the present investigations were to find the subjective perception of post-meal satiety with acute and long term administration of small amounts of PHGG alone with food, its effects on subsequent energy intake and the comparative effects among different types of soluble fibres. The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch. In all the studies, various satiety parameters were measured on VAS before and after consumption of PHGG. The addition of PHGG showed significant (P<0.05) acute (studies 1 and 3) and long-term (studies 1 and 2) satiety effects compared to the control and/or an equal amount of carbohydrate or other types of soluble fibre. Study 2 also indicated that the prolonged consumption of PHGG may significantly (P<0.05) reduce energy intake from whole-day snacking. PHGG could be an ideal natural soluble fibre for delivering acute and long term satiety effects for comfortable appetite control. Copyright © The Authors 2015.
Hori S.,Kyushu University |
Shinozaki M.,Kyushu University |
Nogata D.,Nagoya Keizai University |
Fujita T.,Kyushu University
Energy Policy | Year: 2014
In Asian developing countries, energy saving has become a crucial issue in sustainable development. However, in countries that possess weak government regulations and market mechanisms, industries are expected to save energy voluntarily. Therefore, corporate social responsibility (CSR) can serve as an important incentive to encourage companies to take voluntary actions.In this paper, we analyze CSR recognition and energy-saving actions taken by companies located in two Asian cities. The results of a questionnaire survey revealed that a positive relation exists between CSR recognition and energy saving. In developing countries, CSR develops based on concerns expressed by local cultures and communities. This indicates that the positive relationships that exist between CSR and energy-saving actions reflect the social norms of these communities. The results suggest that policies that encourage companies to enhance their CSR activities in society can serve as effective incentives to encourage energy-saving actions. •In Asian cities, energy saving has become a crucial issue in sustainable development.•CSR can serve as an important incentive to take voluntary energy saving actions.© 2014.
Agata T.,Nagoya Keizai University |
Adachi M.,Nagoya University
Island Arc | Year: 2014
Phenocrystic chrome spinel crystallized in normal MORB-type greenstones in the East Takayama area. Associated phenocryst minerals show a crystallization sequence that was olivine first, followed by plagioclase, and finally clinopyroxene. Chrome spinel ranges from 0.54 to 0.77 in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) and 0.21 to 0.53 in Cr/(Cr+Al); the Fe3+ content varies from 0.07 to 0.22 p.f.u. (O=4). Significant compositional differences of spinel were observed among the phenocryst mineral assemblages. Chrome spinel in the olivine-spinel assemblage shows a wide range in Cr/(Cr+Al), and is depleted in Fe2+ and Fe3+. Chrome spinel in the olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene-spinel assemblage is Fe2+- and Fe3+-rich at relatively high Cr/(Cr+Al) ratios. Basalt with the olivine-plagioclase-spinel assemblage contains both aluminous spinel and Fe2+- and Fe3+-rich spinel. The assumed olivine-spinel equilibrium suggests that chrome spinel in the olivine-spinel assemblage changed in composition from Cr- and Fe2+-rich to Al- and Mg-rich with the progress of fractional crystallization. Chrome spinel in the olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene-spinel assemblage, on the other hand, exhibits the reversed variations in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) and in Cr/(Cr+Al) ratios that decrease and increase with the fractional crystallization, respectively. The entire crystallization course of chrome spinel, projected onto the Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)-Cr/(Cr+Al) diagram, exhibits a U-turn, and appears to be set on a double-lane route. The U-turn point lies in the compositional field of chrome spinel in the olivine-plagioclase-spinel assemblage, and may be explained by plagioclase fractionation that began during the formation of the olivine-plagioclase-spinel assemblage. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Hori S.,Kyushu University |
Kondo K.,Kyushu University |
Nogata D.,Nagoya Keizai University |
Ben H.,Kyushu University
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people's actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Toyo Rice Corporation, Macrophi Inc., Nagoya Keizai University, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences and Kagawa University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anticancer research | Year: 2016
Oral ingestion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to be effective in diseases prevention. Brown rice contains large amounts of LPS not actively consumed because of bad taste. Recently, a new type of brown rice with its wax layer removed has been produced. In this report, we measured the LPS content of this dewaxed rice and evaluated the function of innate immune activation on macrophages.Dewaxed brown rice and polished rice were prepared using the Saika-style rice polishing process. LPS content extracted using hot water from this sample was evaluated by the Limulus reaction and the activation of macrophage RAW246.7 cells was evaluated by nitric oxide (NO) production. In addition, toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2-, 4- and 9-induced human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were used for the confirmation of the activated pathway.Mean LPS content in the 15 types of dewaxed brown rice was found to be 6.42.6 g/g, while that of brown rice was 10.94.3 g/g. The extract of dewaxed brown rice induced significant amounts of NO by RAW246.7 cells, while production was reduced to 1/6 by adding polymyxin B. The macrophage activating effect of dewaxed brown rice was 79- and 51-times higher than that of polished rice in TLR4- and 2-induced HEK 293 cells.LPS content in dewaxed brown rice was found to be able to activate macrophages. This rice activated macrophages mainly via the TLR4 and, to a lesser extent, TLR2 pathways. It is suggested that dewaxed brown rice can be considered effective in allergy and cancer prevention.
PubMed | Taiyo Kagaku R&D and Nagoya Keizai University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2015
Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre, has been shown to provide many health benefits. Previous studies had suggested that the combination of PHGG with protein provided a significant satiation effect on visual analogue scales (VAS). What was lacking was only the effect of administration of small doses of PHGG on post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake. The objectives of the present investigations were to find the subjective perception of post-meal satiety with acute and long term administration of small amounts of PHGG alone with food, its effects on subsequent energy intake and the comparative effects among different types of soluble fibres. The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch. In all the studies, various satiety parameters were measured on VAS before and after consumption of PHGG. The addition of PHGG showed significant (P < 0.05) acute (studies 1 and 3) and long-term (studies 1 and 2) satiety effects compared to the control and/or an equal amount of carbohydrate or other types of soluble fibre. Study 2 also indicated that the prolonged consumption of PHGG may significantly (P < 0.05) reduce energy intake from whole-day snacking. PHGG could be an ideal natural soluble fibre for delivering acute and long term satiety effects for comfortable appetite control.