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Guo P.,Yokkaichi University | Guo P.,Mie University | Piao F.,Dalian Medical University | Sakai K.,Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

This study assessed subjective symptoms related to indoor concentrations of chemicals among residents in a housing estate in Dalian, China, where indoor air pollution by interior decoration materials has recently become a major health problem. Fifty-nine males and 50 females were surveyed for their symptoms related to sick building syndrome. Formaldehyde (HCHO), NO.2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their dwellings were collected using a diffusion sampler and measured by GC/MS. For residents with one or more symptoms in the past, HCHO, butanol or 1,2-dichloroethane concentrations were significantly greater in their bedrooms or kitchens compared with those of subjects without previous symptoms. For residents with one or more symptoms at the time of the study, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylene, butanol, methyl isobutyl ketone, and styrene concentrations in their bedrooms or kitchens were significantly greater compared with those of residents without symptoms. HCHO, NO.2, and VOCs were detected in all rooms, but their levels were lower than the guideline values except for HCHO in two rooms. Chemical substances from interior decoration materials at indoor air levels lower than their guideline values might have affected the health status of residents. Source

Shiota M.,Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute | Saitou K.,Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute | Mizumoto H.,Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute | Agata N.,Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute | And 7 more authors.

Bacillus cereus is recognized as a major pathogenic bacterium that causes food poisoning and produces gastrointestinal diseases of 2 types: emetic and diarrheal. The emetic type, which is often linked to pasta and rice, arises from a preformed toxin, cereulide, in food. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for this emetic toxin are important but are limited. Here we describe 3 patients with B cereus food poisoning in which cereulide was detected and measured sequentially. Three family members began to vomit frequently 30 minutes after consuming reheated fried rice. After 6 hours, a 1-year-old brother died of acute encephalopathy. A 2-year-old sister who presented with unconsciousness recovered rapidly after plasma exchange and subsequent hemodialysis. Their mother recovered soon by fluid therapy. From leftover fried rice and the children's stomach contents, B cereus was isolated. Serum cereulide was detected in both children; it decreased to an undetected level in the sister. These cases highlight the importance of measuring the value of cereulide, which would reflect the severity of B cereus emetic food poisoning. The cases also suggest the possible role of blood-purification therapy in severe cases. Source

Khalequzzaman Md.,Nagoya University | Kamijima M.,Nagoya City University | Sakai K.,Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute | Hoque B.A.,Environment and Population Research Center | Nakajima T.,Nagoya University
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine

Objectives Indoor air pollution levels are reported to be higher with biomass fuel, and a number of respiratory diseases in children are associated with pollution from burning such fuel. However, little is known about the situation in developing countries. The aim of the study was to compare indoor air pollution levels and prevalence of symptoms in children between biomass-and fossil-fuelusing households in different seasons in Bangladesh. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among biomass-(n = 42) and fossil-fuel (n = 66) users having children <5 years in Moulvibazar and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Health-related information of one child from each family was retrieved once in winter (January 2008) and once in summer (June 2008). The measured pollutants were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), dust particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen dioxide. Results Mean concentration of dust particles and geometric mean concentrations of VOCs such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, which were significantly higher in biomass-than fossil-fuel-users kitchens (p<0.05), were significantly higher in winter than in summer (p<0.05). Levels of CO and CO2, which were significantly higher in biomass than fossil-fuel users (p<0.05), were significantly higher in summer than winter (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was found in the occurrence of symptoms between biomass-and fossil-fuel users either in winter or in summer. Conclusions It was suggested that the measured indoor air pollution did not directly result in symptoms among children. Other factors may be involved. © 2010 The Japanese Society for Hygiene. Source

This study aimed to clarify indoor air pollution levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in large buildings after revising of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002. We measured indoor air VOC concentrations in 57 (97%) out of a total of 61 large buildings completed within one year in half of the area of Nagoya, Japan, from 2003 through 2007. Airborne concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were determined with diffusion samplers and high-performance liquid chromatography, and of the other 32 VOCs with diffusion samplers and gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde was detected in all samples of indoor air but the concentrations were lower than the indoor air quality standard value set in Japan (100 microg/m3). Geometric mean concentrations of the other major VOCs, namely toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene and acetaldehyde were also low. 2E1H was found to be one of the predominating VOCs in indoor air of large buildings. A few rooms in a small number of buildings surveyed showed high concentrations of 2E1H, while low concentrations were observed in most rooms of those buildings as well as in other buildings. It was estimated that about 310 buildings had high indoor air pollution levels of 2E1H, with increase during the 5 years from 2003 in Japan. Indoor air pollution levels of VOCs in new large buildings are generally good, although a few rooms in a small number of buildings showed high concentrations in 2E1H, a possible causative chemical in sick building symptoms. Therefore, 2E1H needs particular attention as an important indoor air pollutant. Source

Gao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Kamijima M.,Nagoya City University | Sakai K.,Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Pollution

We investigated the association between indoor air pollutants and childhood acute leukemia (AL). A total of 105 newly diagnosed cases and 105 1:1 gender-, age-, and hospital-matched controls were included. Measurements of indoor pollutants (including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 17 types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) were taken with diffusive samplers for 64 pairs of cases and controls. Higher concentrations of NO2 and almost half of VOCs were observed in the cases than in the controls and were associated with the increased risk of childhood AL. The use of synthetic materials for wall decoration and furniture in bedroom was related to the risk of childhood AL. Renovating the house in the last 5 years, changing furniture in the last 5 years, closing the doors and windows overnight in the winter and/or summer, paternal smoking history and outdoor pollutants affected VOC concentrations. Our results support the association between childhood AL and indoor air pollution. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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