Fukuhara R.,Nansei Environmental Laboratory Co. |
Kageyama T.,Nagoya Bunri University
Gene | Year: 2013
Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) is essential for transporting copper ion to Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD). We cloned cDNAs for six primate species' CCSs. The total number of amino acid residues of primate CCSs is 274. Similarities between primates were over 96%. Important residues for the CCS function were well conserved. A phylogenetic tree of CCSs and Cu,Zn-SODs from various organisms showed that these two proteins were derived from a common ancestor, diverging very early on during eukaryote evolution. The high frequency of nonsynonymous substitutions was found in the lineage to Old World monkeys and apes. Expression of the CCS gene in various tissues of Japanese monkey was found to be high in the liver and adrenal gland, followed by the kidney and small intestine. Such expressional pattern was similar with that of Cu,Zn-SOD gene (Fukuhara et al., 2002). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Hirofumi O.,Nagoya Bunri University
Hyle | Year: 2013
Organic chemistry is based on the classical concept of the molecule, which postulates that molecules have distinct physical shapes, sizes, structures, and are composed of atoms and chemical bonds. Although this concept is not consistent in some respects with what is suggested by quantum mechanics, it reveals a novel property of molecules: molecules are designable. Thanks to this property we can synthesize chemical compounds as we desire with precise control of molecular transformations. Organic synthesis, especially the highly selective synthesis of chiral substances, demonstrates that this concept is empirically adequate. It is also shown that organic chemistry is rational and autonomous as a science with regard to the Method of Analysis and Synthesis.© 2013 by HYLE and OCHIAI Hirofumi.
Takenaka A.,Nagoya Bunri University |
Nakamura S.,Kyoto University |
Mitsunaga F.,Kyoto University |
Inoue-Murayama M.,Kyoto University |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. Conclusions: These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods. © 2012 Takenaka et al.
Miura Y.,Nagoya City University |
Miura Y.,Nagoya Bunri University |
Kageyama T.,Nagoya Bunri University |
Moriyama A.,Nagoya City University
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015
Six pepsinogens were purified from the gastric mucosa of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and Mono Q FPLC. The potential specific activities of two major pepsinogens, PG1-1 and PG2-2, against hemoglobin were 51 and 118units/mg protein, respectively. The activity of pepsin 2-2 was the highest among the pepsins reported to date; this might be linked to the strongly carnivorous diet of the largemouth bass. The molecular masses of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were 39.0 and 41.0kDa, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were LVQVPLEVGQTAREYLE- and LVRLPLIVGKTARQALLE-, respectively, showing similarities with those of fish type-A pepsinogens. The optimal pHs for hemoglobin-digestive activity of pepsins 1-1 and 2-2 were around 1.5 and 2.0, respectively, though both pepsins retained considerable activity at pHs over 3.5. They showed maximal activity around 50 and 40°C, respectively. They were inhibited by pepstatin similarly to porcine pepsin A. The cleavage specificities clarified with oxidized insulin B chain were shown to be restricted to a few bonds consisting of hydrophobic/aromatic residues, such as the Leu15-Tyr16, Phe24-Phe25 and Phe25-Tyr26 bonds. When hemoglobin was used as a substrate, the kcat/Km value of bass pepsin 2-2 was 4.6- to 36.8-fold larger than those of other fish pepsins. In the case of substance P, an ideal pepsin substrate mimic, the kcat/Km values were about 200-fold larger than those of porcine pepsin A, supporting the high activity of the bass pepsin. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Katayama N.,Nagoya City University |
Kondo M.,Nagoya City University |
Kondo M.,Nagoya Bunri University |
Miyazawa M.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2010
The hydration structure of starch molecule in Domyoji-ko, which is made from gluey rice, was investigated by hetero 2D correlation analysis of IR and NIR spectroscopy. The feature near 1020 cm-1 in the IR spectra of Domyoji-ko is changed by rehydration process, indicating that the molecular structure of amylopectin in the starch has been varied by the hydration without heating. The intensity of a band at 4770 cm-1 in NIR spectra is decreasing with the increasing of either the heating time with water or rehydration time without heating. These results suggest that the hydration of Domyoji-ko has proceeded in similar mechanisms on these processes. The generalized hetero 2D IR-NIR correlation analysis for rehydration of Domyoji-ko has supported the assignments for NIR bands concerning the gelatinization of starch. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tsumori S.,Seirei Christopher University |
Yamazumi T.,Nagoya Bunri University |
Nishino K.,Kyushu Institute of Technology
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2016
The authors have been developing a calculation question training system that aims to improve university and college students' calculation abilities. The difficulty of calculation questions seems to depend mainly on the complexity of the calculation formula and its solution. However, we have confirmed that the representations of calculation questions can affect the rate of correctness of answers, even when the solutions use the same calculation formula. Against this background, our question training system extracts questions adapted to the students' ability from a question database and offers them to the student. The question database stores many questions with different representations, even though they are solved using the same or similar formulas. In this paper, we discuss some experiments executed at our university, the relationship between the representation of calculation questions and their difficulty, and the strategy for offering questions for the calculation question training system. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Yokota M.,Nagoya Bunri University |
Yokota Y.,Gifu University
2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC'10 | Year: 2010
When a small figure is presented in human peripheral vision, it becomes invisible and invaded by surrounding texture, within a few seconds. This visual illusion is called perceptual filling-in. Time to filling-in (filling-in time) is varied by the properties of small figure, surround texture and some experimental conditions. In our preliminary study (Yokota, IEEE/IC-EMBS 2005), we found that incomplete fixation distributes filling-in time. Furthermore, that we can see nothing by restraining eye movement artificially is well known. Therefore, we can consider that filling-in time is influenced by eye movement. Although it has been recently reported that eye movement influences the filling-in occurrence (Martinez-Conde, Neuron 2006), the relation between eye movement and the filling-in time has rarely been reported. For this study, we measured the filling-in time for three subjects, for four surrounding textures, with simultaneous recording of eye movement. The results show that the filling-in time correlates to the standard deviation of the power of the eye distance from the fixation point. Furthermore, we found relatively strong correlation between the filling-in time and the power of high frequency component 50-200 (Hz) in the eye movement, though the correlation of the power of low frequency component 10-50 (Hz) is not so high. Thus we suppose that filling-in is inhibited by small involuntary eye movement. © 2010 IEEE.
Yokota M.,Nagoya Bunri University |
Yokota Y.,Gifu University
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2015
Our eyes move slightly and rapidly, even while we gaze at an object. If fixational eye movement is inhibited, visual objects begin to fade until we ultimately cannot see them at all. Involuntary fixational eye movement is essential for the acquisition of visual information, as neurons become inactive when exposed to continuous homogeneous visual stimuli. Involuntary fixational eye movement is believed to be generated by random neural activation. In this study, we focused on the other role of eye movement. It is supposed that fixational eye movement is affected by perception of a visual stimulus. Thus, involuntary fixational eye movement might be controlled by perception. We measured subjects’ fixational eye movement while dynamic textures with limited spatio-temporal frequency were presented to their central or peripheral visual field. Results indicated that recorded fixational eye movements are influenced by the spatio-temporal frequency sensitivity of vision. The higher frequency component of the fixational eye movement in both central and in peripheral vision increases when the dynamic texture of a stimulus has a spatio-temporal frequency of a higher visual sensitivity. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
Tsuji T.,Nagoya Bunri University |
Tsuji T.,University of Shiga Prefecture |
Fukuwatari T.,University of Shiga Prefecture |
Sasaki S.,University of Tokyo |
Shibata K.,University of Shiga Prefecture
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010
Background/Objectives: We examined the association between 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese university students. The design used was cross-sectional study. Subjects/Methods: A total of 216 healthy, free-living male and female Japanese university students aged 18-27 years voluntarily participated in this study, of which 156 students were eligible for this assessment. All foods consumed for 4 consecutive days were recorded accurately by a weighed food record method. A 24-h urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins were measured. Results: Each urinary water-soluble vitamin level, except for vitamin B 12, was correlated positively with its mean intake in the recent 2-4 days (vitamin B 1: r0.42, P0.001; vitamin B 2: r0.43, P0.001; vitamin B 6: r0.40, P0.001; vitamin B 12: r0.06, P0.493; niacin: r0.35, P0.001; niacin equivalents: r0.33, P0.001; pantothenic acid: r0.47, P0.001; folate: r0.27, P0.001; vitamin C: r0.44, P0.001). Mean estimated water-soluble vitamin intakes calculated from urinary levels and recovery rates showed 91-101% of their 3-day mean intakes, except for vitamin B 12 (61%). Conclusions: These results showed that urinary water-soluble vitamin levels, except for vitamin B 12, reflect their recent intakes in free-living Japanese university students, and could be used as a potential biomarker to estimate mean vitamin intake. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Ochiai H.,Nagoya Bunri University
Hyle | Year: 2015
Stereochemistry studies molecules and molecular transformations by way of the classical model of the molecule, which envisages molecules as composed of atoms that are linked together by chemical bonds. The underlying hypothesis of this model is that molecules are entities with definite shape and structure, and behave like mechanical objects in the world of possible experience. Such a view of molecules raises questions about the legitimacy of this science because neither shape nor structure is taken any longer as a solid scaffold on which to construct philosophical or scientific arguments. Thus, questions to be addressed in this paper are whether or not it is allowed to treat molecular events, which are dynamic in nature and subject to quantum mechanical principles, by way of the classical model; whether or not the classical model is proved true by the physical measurements of molecules; and whether or not the nature of enantiomers is explicable by the classical model. An analytical tool kit for the philosophy of chemistry recently introduced by Harré (the concept of the affordance in particular) will help to prove the empirical adequacy of the classical model. Inquiries into these questions from a philosophical as well as from a chemical point of view will reveal the foundations of stereochemistry. © 2015 by HYLE and Hirofumi OCHIAI.