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Nagasaki-shi, Japan

Shimizu Y.,Nagasaki University | Nakazato M.,Nagasaki University | Sato S.,Nagasaki University | Koyamatsu J.,Nagasaki University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Physiological Anthropology | Year: 2015

Background: Recent studies have reported an association between both higher and lower levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and higher mortality of diabetes patients. Like diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis is a well known lifestyle-related disease. However, no studies have yet reported an association between HbA1c levels and carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,150 Japanese elderly men aged ≥60 years who were undergoing general health checkups. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥1.1 mm. Since body mass index (BMI) is regarded as a cardiovascular risk factor that exerts a strong influence on both HbA1c levels and carotid atherosclerosis, we performed a stratified analysis of this risk based on BMI. Results: Using the intermediate HbA1c quintile as a reference group, the groups in the lowest HbA1c quintiles showed a significantly higher risk of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with low BMI (≤23 kg/m2) vs. no increased risk in those with high BMI (>23 kg/m2). The association of HbA1c with carotid atherosclerosis became slightly stronger when these analyses were limited to subjects who were not taking glucose-lowering medications or medications for hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. After adjusting for classical cardiovascular risk factors, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for carotid atherosclerosis were 1.36 (0.84 to 2.20) for total subjects, 2.29 (1.12 to 4.66) for low-BMI groups, and 0.68 (0.33 to 1.41) for high-BMI groups. Conclusions: Lower HbA1c level is a significant risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in rural community-dwelling elderly Japanese men with low, but not high BMI, particularly in those not taking glucose-lowering medication. © Shimizu et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Shimizu Y.,Nagasaki University | Nakazato M.,Nagasaki University | Sato S.,Nagasaki University | Koyamatsu J.,Nagasaki University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of physiological anthropology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported an association between both higher and lower levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and higher mortality of diabetes patients. Like diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis is a well known lifestyle-related disease. However, no studies have yet reported an association between HbA1c levels and carotid atherosclerosis.METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,150 Japanese elderly men aged ≥60 years who were undergoing general health checkups. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥1.1 mm. Since body mass index (BMI) is regarded as a cardiovascular risk factor that exerts a strong influence on both HbA1c levels and carotid atherosclerosis, we performed a stratified analysis of this risk based on BMI.RESULTS: Using the intermediate HbA1c quintile as a reference group, the groups in the lowest HbA1c quintiles showed a significantly higher risk of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with low BMI (≤23 kg/m(2)) vs. no increased risk in those with high BMI (>23 kg/m(2)). The association of HbA1c with carotid atherosclerosis became slightly stronger when these analyses were limited to subjects who were not taking glucose-lowering medications or medications for hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. After adjusting for classical cardiovascular risk factors, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for carotid atherosclerosis were 1.36 (0.84 to 2.20) for total subjects, 2.29 (1.12 to 4.66) for low-BMI groups, and 0.68 (0.33 to 1.41) for high-BMI groups.CONCLUSIONS: Lower HbA1c level is a significant risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in rural community-dwelling elderly Japanese men with low, but not high BMI, particularly in those not taking glucose-lowering medication. Source


Orita M.,Nagasaki University | Hayashida N.,Nagasaki University | Shinkawa T.,Nagasaki University | Urata H.,Nagasaki University | And 5 more authors.
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Patients with profound multiple disabilities (PMD) are defined as individuals with profound cognitive disabilities (IQ < 35) and neuromotor dysfunction. Additionally, PMD patients often have sensory impairment and clinical manifestations. These conditions may result in severe developmental disability, functional and behavioral deficits, and a lack of language-based communication. Warm footbaths are implemented for patients with PMD. But the objective evaluation of warm footbaths has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of warm footbaths through the monitoring of autonomic nervous activity using heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with PMD. Methods: Eight patients with PMD (five patients with cerebral palsy, one with Aicardi's syndrome, one with post-traumatic syndrome after a head injury, and one with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) and one healthy adult male volunteer had a warm footbath for 20 minutes. We used electrocardiography to measure the high frequency components (HF; with frequency ranging from 0.15 to 0.4 Hz), which represent HRV due to parasympathetic activity. Analysis of variance was used to compare the level of HF pretreatment, during warm footbath, and post-treatment in each study participant. Results: Six of the eight patients, including three patients with clinically severe behavioral and emotional disturbance, showed significantly lower log HF during the warm footbath than pretreatment. Seven of the eight patients showed lower log HF in the first period phase (soak lower legs and feet in 40°C water) of the warm footbath.Discussion: Our results showed that warm footbaths in patients with PMD suppressed parasympathetic nervous activity and stimulated their tactile senses and emotional inputs when soaking their feet in warm water. Source


Mizukami S.,Nagasaki University | Arima K.,Nagasaki University | Abe Y.,Nagasaki University | Kanagae M.,Nagasaki University | And 3 more authors.
Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2013

Falls are a major public health problem and the second leading cause of death due to unintentional accidental injury after road traffic accidents. Inactive, older individuals with several chronic illnesses fall more frequently than older individuals who are active and healthy. No population-based study has addressed the association of stroke, arthritis, hypnotic and other prescription medications with falls among the elderly simultaneously in a single population in Japan. We examined the prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly Japanese individuals, whom we randomly selected from a list of inhabitants aged ≥ 65 years compiled from the resident registration, and the associations between falls and each of stroke, arthritis, and hypnotic and other prescription medications. We interviewed 295 men and 307 women, and collected information about the number of falls during the latest one year, hemiplegia due to stroke, arthritis in the legs, and the number of hypnotic and other medications. We found that 46 men (16%) and 67 women (22%) had fallen at least once during the latest one year. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age showed that hemiplegia due to stroke (p < 0.001), arthritis in the legs (p < 0.001), and taking at least four daily prescription medications (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with falls in men. Arthritis in the legs (p = 0.05) and taking at least four daily prescription medications (p < 0.05) were associated with falls in women. Treatment of fall-related diseases and medication management are important strategies for reducing falls among elderly persons. © 2013 Tohoku University Medical Press. Source


Shimizu Y.,Nagasaki University | Nakazato M.,Nagasaki University | Sekita T.,Nagasaki University | Kadota K.,Nagasaki University | And 6 more authors.
Acta Medica Nagasakiensia | Year: 2014

Although bone metabolism is reportedly associated with production and maturation of blood corpuscles, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels have been associated with bone metabolism, no published study has investigated the association between ALP and anemia. Furthermore, although ALP is known as an enzyme affected by alcohol consumption, there are no reports in the literature on associations between ALP and the risk of anemia in relation to drinking status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 907 men aged 30-89 years undergoing a general health check-up to investigate the associations between ALP and anemia in relation to drinking status. Of the 907 participants, 120 men were diagnosed with anemia. The association between ALP and anemia was J-shaped. With the second quartile of ALP (194-228 IU/L) (Q2) as the reference group, the multivariable adjusted OR and 95%CI for anemia were 1.91 (95%CI: 0.96-3.82) for <194 IU/L (Q1), 1.84 (95%CI: 0.93-3.62) for 229-277 IU/L (Q3) and 2.83 (95%CI:1.49-5.37) for >277 IU/L (Q4). When the analysis was limited to non-drinkers, the associations became stronger with corresponding values of 3.34 (95%CI: 1.28-8.74), 3.18 (95%CI: 1.28-7.88) and 3.22 (95%CI:1.37-7.59). Not only lower but also higher levels of serum ALP are associated with anemia for men, especially non-drinkers. For analyses of associations between ALP and anemia, alcohol consumption should thus be considered a potential confounder. Source

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