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Nagasaki-shi, Japan

Ogawara D.,Sasebo Central Hospital | Fukuda M.,Nagasaki Municipal Hospital | Nakamura Y.,Nagasaki University | Kohno S.,Nagasaki University
Cancer Management and Research

Long-term survival is quite uncommon in refractory small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, with less than 25% of patients with limited-stage disease and 1%-2% of patients with extensive-stage disease remaining alive at five years. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the promising efficacy of amrubicin for patients with relapsed SCLC. This review presents the results of clinical studies showing the efficacy and safety of amrubicin for the treatment of relapsed SCLC. Amrubicin is a synthetic anthracycline agent with a similar structure to doxorubicin, in which the hydroxyl group at position 9 in amrubicin is replaced by an amino group to enhance efficacy. It is converted to an active metabolite, amrubicinol, which is 5-54 times more active than amrubicin. Amrubicin and amrubicinol are inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II, exerting their cytotoxic effects by stabilizing a topoisomerase II-mediated cleavable complex. The toxicity of amrubicin is similar to that of doxorubicin, although amrubicin shows almost no cardiotoxicity. In the relevant trials, amrubicin was administered intravenously at a dose of 35-40 mg/m2 on days 1-3 every three weeks. The response rate was 34%-52% and median survival times were 8.1-12.0 months. Common hematologic toxicities included neutropenia, leucopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and febrile neutropenia. Nonhematologic adverse events included Grade 3-4 anorexia, asthenia, hyponatremia, and nausea. The results of the studies which demonstrated the efficacy of monotherapy for relapsed SCLC involved mainly Japanese patients. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more clinical studies in non-Japanese patients to confirm the efficacy of amrubicin. © 2010 Ogawara et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

Sagara Y.,Nagasaki University | Miyata Y.,Nagasaki University | Nomata K.,Nagasaki Municipal Hospital | Hayashi T.,Nagasaki University | Kanetake H.,Nagasaki University
Cancer Epidemiology

Background: Green tea polyphenol (GTP) suppresses malignancy in bladder cancer cell lines. However, the detail of its anti-carcinogenic effect in vivo is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of GTP on bladder tumor size and angiogenesis in mice given N-butyl-(-4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN), with and without GTP. Methods: Eight-week-old female C3H/He mice were treated with and without 0.05% BBN solution for 14 or 24 weeks. In addition, they were also treated with and without 0.5% GTP solution for the same periods. Histopathological diagnosis was established using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density (MVD) was estimated by counting CD34- and von Willebrand factor-positive vessels in the tumor area. Results: At 14 weeks, cancer cells were detected in BBN and BBN + GTP mice [5/14 (35.7%) and 3/14 (21.4%), respectively, p = 0.678]. At 24 weeks, the incidence of cancer cells was also similar between the groups (BBN + GTP: 61.9% vs. BBN: 82.6%; p = 0.179). However, the frequency of invasive tumors in BBN + GTP mice was significantly lower (23.8%; p = 0.030) than in those given BBN alone (65.2%). Tumor volume and MVD of intratumoral and stromal region in the BBN + GTP group were also significantly lower than in BBN mice. Conclusion: The results showed that GTP had no anti-carcinogenic effect, but inhibited tumor growth and invasion in mice with established bladder cancer, at least in part through the regulation of angiogenesis. Our data suggest that GTP seems to suppress tumor development in bladder cancer. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Tsutsui S.,Nagasaki University | Ashizawa K.,Nagasaki University | Minami K.,Nagasaki Municipal Hospital | Tagawa T.,Nagasaki University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Roentgenology

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of multiple focal pure ground-glass opacities (GGOs) on high-resolution CT images of patients with lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The cases of 23 patients with proven lung cancer and associated multiple focal pure GGOs on high-resolution CT images were retrospectively reviewed. The number, size, distribution, and morphologic characteristics of focal pure GGOs were evaluated. Serial changes in focal pure GGOs that were not surgically resected were analyzed at follow-up high-resolution CT. RESULTS. The number of focal pure GGOs was 196 in total. The size of the opacities ranged from 2 to 30 mm in largest diameter. Lung cancer and focal pure GGOs were seen in the same lobe and/or in the other lobes. One hundred seventy-one of the lesions (87%) had a well-defined border or round shape. Histologic findings were obtained for 15 lesions representing 74 focal pure GGOs that were surgically resected: 11 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia lesions, three bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, and one lesion of focal fibrosis. In 110 of the cases of focal pure GGOs, all of which were followed up with HRCT for a median duration of 1,351 days, the size of 105 lesions (95%) did not change, the size of one decreased, and four lesions disappeared. CONCLUSION. The size of most focal pure GGOs associated with lung cancer did not change during the follow-up period. Most of the small number of lesions histologically diagnosed were atypical adenomatous hyperplasia or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. These data justify the therapeutic strategy of resecting the primary tumor without therapeutic intervention in the remaining focal pure GGOs. © American Roentgen Ray Society. Source

Nakamura Y.,Nagasaki University | Sano K.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University | Soda H.,Sasebo General Hospital | Takatani H.,Red Cross | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology

Introduction: We assessed the relationship between the plasma concentration of gefitinib and its efficacy in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Plasma trough levels of gefitinib were measured on days 3 (D3) and 8 (D8) by high-performance liquid chromatography in 44 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with 250 mg gefitinib daily. Eligibility criteria included performance status ≤3, age ≤ 80 years, and stages IIIB-IV cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in 23 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The median plasma gefitinib values were 662 ng/ml on D3 and 1064 ng/ml on D8, and the D8/D3 ratio was 1.587. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 71 days, and the median overall survival was 224 days. Adenocarcinoma, never smoking, and high D8/D3 ratio were associated with better PFS. Multivariate analysis showed that PFS was associated with never smoking and high D8/D3 ratio. Never-smokers with a high D8/D3 ratio showed the best PFS. Overall survival was not associated with the D8/D3 ratio. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis of 23 patients showed that 15 patients had exon 19 deletion and/or exon 21 point mutation. Median PFS was similar between mutation-positive and mutation-negative individuals in the high D8/D3 group, whereas mutation-negative individuals in the low D8/D3 group showed the worst median PFS. Conclusions: A high D8/D3 ratio was independently associated with better PFS in patients with NSCLC treated with gefitinib. Our findings suggest that the pharmacokinetics of gefitinib may be involved in its antitumor activity. © 2010 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source

Kawashiri S.-Y.,Nagasaki University | Suzuki T.,Nagasaki University | Okada A.,Nagasaki University | Yamasaki S.,Nagasaki University | And 8 more authors.
Modern Rheumatology

Objective: We investigated whether musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSKUS) assists the diagnostic performance of the 2010 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) classification criteria. Methods: Sixty-nine early arthritis patients were consecutively enrolled. None of the patients had been treated. In MSKUS of bilateral wrist and finger joints from 22 sites, the findings obtained by gray-scale and power Doppler (PD) assessment were graded on a semiquantitative scale from 0 to 3. Plain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both wrist and finger joints was also examined. Diagnosis of RA was defined by the initiation of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs within the first 3 months. The diagnostic performance of the patients was evaluated at entry using 2010 RA classification criteria in conjunction with MSKUS. Results: The indispensable MSKUS finding for differentiating RA was the presence of a PD grade 2 or 3 that was superior to 2010 RA classification criteria or MRI-proven bone edema. We propose that the decision tree algorithm of 2010 RA classification criteria with PD grade 2 or 3 reveals the best discriminative ability. Conclusion: MSKUS, especially with a strong PD signal, is very useful to assist the diagnostic performance of the 2010 RA classification criteria in the early recognition of RA. © 2012 Japan College of Rheumatology. Source

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