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Nagasaki-shi, Japan

Nagai N.,Nagasaki Marine Observatory | Takahashi T.,Jyouetsu Environment Center | Kuroda K.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea
Bulletin of the Plankton Society of Japan | Year: 2012

A review on the fauna and the distributional ecology of pelagic chaetognaths in the Japan Sea was compiled here. The Japan Sea is a marginal sea surrounded by the Asian Continent and the Japanese Islands and characterized by limited connectivity to other seas through the four shallow straits (The Tsushima, Tsugaru, Soya and Mamiya). Major results are summarized as follows: 1)In total, 22 species with1form belonging to11genera are listed as the epipelagic chaetognath fauna. 2) Some characteristics of chaetognath distribution are: 1) Only Parasagitta elegans and not Pseudosagitta scrippsae or Eukrohnia hamata occur of the subarctic species. 2) Flassisagitta hexaptera, Krohnitta subtilis, Mesosagitta decipiens, M. neodecipiens and Pseudosagitta lyra, which are mainly distributed in the mesopelagic layer in the Kuroshio Current region, appear rarely in the surface layer. 3) The dominant species in the epi-and mesopelagic layers in subarctic regions is only P. elegans, and its distribution extends into the mesopelagic layer in the Tsushima Warm Current region. 4) In the Tsushima Warm Current region, the dominant species are Mesosagitta minima, Zonosagitta nagae, Flassisagitta enflata and Serratosagitta pacifica, and a seasonal shift is apparent: M. minima (in winter), P. elegans (in spring), Z. nagae (in summer), M. minima (in autumn). 5) The northern limit of Aidanosagitta crassa, distributed in near-shore waters, is found in Mutsu Bay on the Japanese side, but not at such a northern latitude on the continental side. 6) Rare subtropical species occur increasingly after the 1990 s, accompanied by the rise of water temperature. Source


Nagai N.,Nagasaki Marine Observatory | Moriyama E.,National Maizuru Marine Observatory | Kuroda K.,Fisheries Agency
Bulletin of the Plankton Society of Japan | Year: 2012

A review on the fauna and the distributional ecology of pelagic chaetognaths in the East China Sea, including the waters near Taiwan and the Taiwan Strait, one of the marginal seas in the North Pacific, are compiled here. Major results are summarized as follows: 1) In total, 30 species with 1 form belonging to 14 genera are listed as the chaetognath fauna with 25 species containing 1 form in 11 genera for the epipelagic, 4 species in 3 genera for the mesopelagic, and 1 species in 1 genus for the bathypelagic layers. 2) Some distributional characteristics of chaetognaths are : Compared to the other domains, meso- and bathypelagic species are scarcely found in large numbers. The noteworthy occurrence of many tropical-neritic species were found in the 1990s. Flaccisagitta enflata predominates throughout the year in the Kuroshio area and invades towards the Bohai Sea through the Yellow Sea in summer and autumn. Typical indicator species in this domain are Aidanosagitta crassa in the near-shore water and Zonosagitta nagae in the coastal water during winter to spring and F. enflata, Z. bedoti during summer to autumn on the continental shelf, and F. enflata, F. hexaptera, Krohnitta subtilis in the Kuroshio and the offshore- oceanic water. The southern limit of A. crassa distribution is presumed to be attained near Hong Kong in the South China Sea southwards through the Taiwan Strait. Source


Kuroda K.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea | Kotori M.,Hokkaiao Fisheries Experimental Station | Nagai N.,Nagasaki Marine Observatory | Yamaguchi A.,Hokkaido University | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of the Plankton Society of Japan | Year: 2012

The eight included reviews were proposed to stimulate future work on chaetognaths and are based on presentations made during the workshop held by the Japan Chaetognatha Group at Mie University on Nov. 4, 2011.They are composed of seven reviews and a summary review on the fauna and the distributional ecology in the marginal seas of the north-west Pacific (the Bering Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Japan Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) and the surrounding eastern and southern domains of Japan. The major results are summarized as follows:l) 43 species belonging to15 genera with 2 forms are listed as the presently-known pelagic chaetognath fauna. 2) Species richness is extremely poor in both the Bering and the Okhotsk Seas, but rich in the eastern and southern domains of Japan, in the East China Sea and the South China Sea. There are clear differences in species numbers and species composition between these areas. 3) Meso- and bathypelagic species are lower in number than epipelagic species (12 genera 32 species), and epipelagic species richness is highest in both the East China Sea and the South China Sea. 4) Some characteristics of chaetognath distribution are: 1) In the Japan Sea, meso- and bathypelagic species are absent, so only Parasagitta elegans occurs extensively to layers deeper than 1000 m. 2) In the southern seas of Japan, the subarctic P. elegans and Pseudosagitta scrippsae occur in the mesopelagic layer in the inner core of the Kuroshio warm current, accompanied by the Intermediate Oyashio Water. 3) In summer and autumn, Flaccisagitta enflata invades inner bays throughout the coastal waters south of Japan and also, it advances northwards in the Japan Sea, reaching the Bohai Sea through the Yellow Sea in the East China Sea. 5) In the subtropical waters surrounding Japan, F. enflata, Mesosagitta minima, Serratosagitta pacifica and Zonosagitta nagae predominate, mostly during their different spawning seasons around Japan. Otherwise, in the subarctic waters of the northern Japan Sea, the Oyashio region, the Okhotsk Sea and Bering Seas, Parasagitta elegans dominates, being followed by Eukrohnia hama-ta and Parasagitta scrippsae. 6) Sagami and Suruga Bays, abundant in the number of both meso- and bathypelagic species, are looked upon as special spots from the viewpoint of the biogeography of chaetognath distribution. 7) Eight opinions are expressed for future studies on Chaetognatha. Source


Pfeil B.,University of Bergen | Pfeil B.,Bjerknes Center for Climate Research | Pfeil B.,University of Bremen | Olsen A.,University of Bergen | And 96 more authors.
Earth System Science Data | Year: 2013

A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities. © 2013 Author(s). Source


Sabine C.L.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Hankin S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Koyuk H.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Koyuk H.,University of Washington | And 91 more authors.
Earth System Science Data | Year: 2013

As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968-2007). The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2) product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles), but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions). © 2013 Author(s). Source

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