Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center

Nagasaki-shi, Japan

Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center

Nagasaki-shi, Japan
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Sugiura H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Inoue H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kato O.,Yamanashi Fruit Tree Experiment Station | Tezuka T.,Yamanashi Fruit Tree Experiment Station | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology | Year: 2017

To clarify the effect of organic matter application on soil carbon sequestration in orchards, long-term field experiments (>10 years) were conducted at three sites (in Tsukuba, Yamanashi, and Omura) characterized by different fruit crop species, soil types, and climate. Three treatments were established in plots at all sites: (i) clean cultivation (CC, the control), in which chemical fertilizer was applied and the ground was kept bare; (ii) sod culture (SC), in which chemical fertilizer was applied and the ground was covered by grass or weeds; and (iii) organic amendment (OA), in which chemical fertilizer and cattle manure (OAcat) or bark compost (OAbrk) were applied and the ground was kept bare. At Tsukuba, annual changes in soil organic carbon concentration (asoc) were lowest in CC and highest in OAcat and OAbrk plots. At Yamanashi, CC plots lost soil carbon, and asoc increased the highest in OAcat plots. At Omura, asoc was negative in CC and SC plots and was positive in OAbrk plots. Within treatments, annual changes in soil organic carbon were highest in OA plots and lowest in CC plots at all sites; positive differences between control and treatment plots indicated that application of organic matter increased soil carbon sequestration. © 2017, Society of Agricultural Meteorology of Japan. All rights reserved.


Morikawa H.,Nagasaki University | Saito Y.,Nagasaki University | Matsuo Y.,Nagasaki University | Maeda H.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Tanaka T.,Nagasaki University
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2016

The wood of Platycarya strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc. (Juglandaceae) was used as incense. In this study, three new sesquiterpenes (2, 4, 5) and one norsesquiterpene (3) were isolated and their structures determined as 7-hydroperoxy-11-hydroxy-2,4-cycloeudesman-8-one (2), 8-hydroxy-13-nor-2,4-cycloeudesman-7-en-11-one (3), 2,4-cycloeudesma-7(11), 8-dien-(12,8)-olide (4), and 8-hydroxy-8,12-peroxy-2,4-cycloeudesm-7(11)-ene (5). In addition, the absolute configuration of a previously reported sesquiterpene was revised based on the calculation of its ECD spectrum.


Fukagawa S.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Kataoka K.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Ishii Y.,University of Miyazaki
Agronomy | Year: 2017

Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM) yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot) and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot), which is common for beef-calf-producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer) and late November (late autumn), each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf-producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation quality of the dwarf Napiergrass silage when processed in summer. © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Mori K.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Asano K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Tamiya S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Nakao T.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Mori M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Breeding Science | Year: 2015

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is cultivated all year round in Japan by using four types of cropping: summer and winter croppings, and double cropping in spring and fall. In each cropping season, growth conditions such as temperature, day length, and growing period, differ drastically; thus, different cultivars adapted to each environment are required. Breeding stations are located in both summer cropping areas and double cropping areas, and cultivars suitable for each cropping system are developed. The required cultivars differ according to cropping type and according to use such as table use, food processing, and starch production. The qualities necessary for each purpose differ and are therefore evaluated accordingly. Improvements in pest and disease resistance and in yield abilities are important as common breeding targets for all purposes. To develop potato cultivars that meet different needs, breeders have continued efforts to improve these traits. In this review, we introduce our approaches to developing new potato cultivars. We also discuss problems predicted in the future and introduce our efforts on broadening genetic diversity. © 2015, Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved.


Horita M.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Suga Y.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Ooshiro A.,Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | Tsuchiya K.,Kyushu University
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

We assessed the geographic distribution, biovar, phylotype, DNA fingerprints (rep-PCR), and/or endoglucanase sequence of potato bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs), in Japan. Rs has been isolated from potato fields in southwestern, warm, temperate regions. Of the 188 isolates, 74 belonged to biovar N2 (39%), 44 to biovar 3 (24%), and 70 to biovar 4 (37%). Biovars N2 and 4 strains were widely distributed, from northern (Hokkaido) to southern (Okinawa) Japan. Based on the results of multiplex-PCR analysis, every potato strains belonged to either phylotype I or IV. Phylotype I comprised both biovars 3 and 4 strains. On the other hand, phylotype IV included biovar N2 strains. None of the strains belonged to phylotype II or III or biovar 1 or 2. Phylogenetic analysis based on DNA fingerprints and endoglucanase gene sequences clarified the genetic diversity of the Japanese potato strains and the close genetic relationship between the Japanese strains and the Asian strains in phylotypes I and IV. © 2010 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.


Suga Y.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Suga Y.,Kyushu University | Horita M.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Umekita M.,Kyushu University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) strains in phylotypes I and IV isolated from potato in Japan were investigated for pathogenicity on potato, tomato, eggplant, Solanumintegrifolium, tobacco, groundnut, and pumpkin. The strains were divided into 17 types based on differences in their pathogenicity on the tested plants. Particularly, the pathogenicity of most phylotype I strains on eggplant was distinctly different from that of the phylotype IV strains. When nine potato varieties (included two breeding lines) were inoculated with several Rs strains, phylotype IV strains were highly virulent on the breeding lines that are regarded as resistant to phylotype I strains. © 2013 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan.


Omar M.,Nagasaki University | Matsuo Y.,Nagasaki University | Maeda H.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Saito Y.,Nagasaki University | Tanaka T.,Nagasaki University
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

Two unusual ellagitannin metabolites, quercusnins A (3) and B (4), have been isolated from the sapwood of Quercus crispula, and their structures determined by spectroscopic methods, as well as DFT calculations of 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the possible four diastereomers. Treatment of the major ellagitannin species, vescalagin, with Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) gave 3, which indicated that these unique ellagitannins were the fungal metabolites of ellagitannins. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Mori K.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Mori K.,Kobe University | Sakamoto Y.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Mukojima N.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | And 4 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Multiplex PCR is practically a reasonable choice for molecular marker-assisted selection in potato breeding. We had developed and were using a multiplex PCR method for selection of resistance genes to cyst nematode (H1), Potato virus X (Rx1) and late blight (R1 and R2). Since then, more reliable and tightly linked markers for H1 and R2, and a new marker for resistance to Potato virus Y (Rychc) were developed. In this article, all these superior markers, including a positive marker to eliminate PCR-failed samples, were incorporated into one multiplex PCR assay. Using the newly developed multiplex PCR technique, five plants potentially harboring all five resistance genes were selected from 96 hybrid plants approximately 5 h after DNA extraction, which is a third of the operation time compared with separate PCR reactions for each marker. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Mori K.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Mori K.,Kobe University | Mukojima N.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | Nakao T.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2012

Saikai 35 was bred from a cross between TD0101 as the female, which was created by chromosome-doubling of a good-tasting and bacterial wilt resistant diploid variety, Inca-no-mezame, and Sakurafubuki as the male, the latter of which has H1 and Ry chc genes showing resistance to potato cyst nematode (PCN) and Potato virus Y (PVY), respectively. All favorable traits were combined into Saikai 35, although marketable yield in the spring cropping was 20.4-21.0% lower than those of major double-cropping varieties. Saikai 35 is particularly useful for having Solanum phureja-derived cytoplasm (S/ε), which resulted in high male and female fertility. In addition, sets of very tightly linked DNA markers sandwiching H1 and Ry chc are available. Therefore, Saikai 35 is being released as a breeding line, which can confer efficiently PCN and PVY resistance genes. © 2011 Potato Association of America.


Omar M.,Nagasaki University | Omar M.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt | Matsuo Y.,Nagasaki University | Maeda H.,Nagasaki Agricultural and Forestry Technical Development Center | And 2 more authors.
Phytochemistry Letters | Year: 2013

Two novel glycosides, 4,5-dimethoxy-3-hydroxyphenol 1-O-β-(6′-O- galloyl)-glucopyranoside (1) and (+)-2α-O-galloyl lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (2), as well as a novel ellagitannin named epiquisqualin B (3), were isolated from sapwood of Quercus mongolica var. crispula along with 19 known phenolic compounds. The structures of the novel compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic investigation. Compound 2 is the first example of a lignan galloyl ester, and 3 is the oxidation product of vescalagin, which is the major ellagitannin of this plant. © 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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