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Sankar V.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | Nair R.R.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | Harikrishnan V.S.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | Fernandez A.C.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Ayurveda is an Indian system of medicine. Despite clinical efficacy, lack of scientific validation has limited the effective use of Ayurvedic drugs. Cardoguard is an Ayurvedic antihypertensive drug formulated by Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates Ltd., Kerala, India. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a modifiable risk factor, and regression of LVH reduces the propensity for adverse cardiovascular events. This study was taken up with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of Cardoguard in the prevention of cardiac remodeling. Cardoguard was administered orally to 2-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats for 4 months at a dose of 5 mg·day -1. The dose corresponds to the therapeutic dose calculated on the basis of body surface area. Lower hypertrophy index, decrease in cardiomyocyte area, and reduction of interstitial fibrosis in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats indicate amelioration of cardiac hypertrophy by Cardoguard. Cardiac output increased in response to treatment. Immunostaining for the phosphorylated components of major signaling pathways associated with hypertrophy suggests that prevention of LVH by Cardoguard is possibly mediated through inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and protein kinase C-3 signaling pathways. Reduced expression of 3-nitrotyrosine in response to the treatment suggests that prevention of cardiac remodeling by Cardoguard is mediated by reduction of oxidative stress. Source


Sankar V.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | Renuka Nair R.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | Adelaide C.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | Fernandez,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Biomedicine | Year: 2010

Background and objectives:Despite advances in medicine and biology, hypertension and its cardiac sequelae remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Ayurvedic drugs are therapeutically effective. However, its widespread acceptance is limited by the lack of scientific validation. Cardoguard is an Ayurvedic antihypertensive drug formulated by Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates Ltd., India. This study was taken up with the aim of validating the vasorelaxant potential of Cardoguard and ascertaining the mechanism of action. Methods: Aortic rings from rat was used as the experimental model. Precontracted aortic rings were treated with Cardoguard and change in isometric force was measured using Chart 5 software to assess the vasorelaxant capacity of the drug. To determine the mechanism of action, its role as a calcium antagonist, ATP- sensitive potassium channel activator, angiotensin II inhibitor and β blocker was examined. The influence of endothelium in mediating vasorelaxation was assessed by comparison of the extent of aortic relaxation induced by the drug in the presence and absence of functional endothelium. Results: Vasorelaxation induced by Cardoguard was found to be endothelium dependent. The drug was found to act as a calcium channel antagonist and also an ATP- sensitive potassium channel activator. Interpretation and Conclusion: Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by Cardoguard appears to be mediated by its antioxidant capacity associated with calcium antagonistic action linked with activation of K ATP channels. Source


Louis T.,Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates Ltd. | Yuvaraj P.,Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates Ltd. | Madhavachandran V.,Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates Ltd.
Biomedicine | Year: 2010

Background & Objectives: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. is one of the most commonly used herbs in India for the treatment of cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we have evaluated the antitumour activity of the chloroform extract of Semicapus anacardium (SNEt) against the Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) tumour in mice model. Methods: The activity was assessed using survival time, haematological studies, solid tumour mass, developed tumour and in vitro cytotoxicity. Results: The reduction of survival time with alteration of haematological parameters and increase of solid tumour mass were observed in tumour inoculation, which was restored on administration of SNEt to tumour bearing mice. Further, in vitro study showed that SNEt was found to be cytotoxic to cancer cells. Conclusion: Our study suggests that SNEt possesses significant antitumour activity. Source

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