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Asakura T.,Tokyo University of Science | Tamura T.,Tokyo University of Science | Tamura T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Terauchi K.,Tokyo University of Science | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The gene expression profiles in soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds at 4 stages of development, namely, pod, 2-mm bean, 5-mm bean, and full-size bean, were examined by DNA microarray analysis. The total genes of each sample were classified into 4 clusters based on stage of development. Gene expression was strictly controlled by seed size, which coincides with the development stage. First, stage specific gene expression was examined. Many transcription factors were expressed in pod, 2-mm bean and 5-mm bean. In contrast, storage proteins were mainly expressed in full-size bean. Next, we extracted the genes that are differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were extracted using the Rank products method of the Bioconductor software package. These DEGs were sorted into 8 groups using the hclust function according to gene expression patterns. Three of the groups across which the expression levels progressively increased included 100 genes, while 3 groups across which the levels decreased contained 47 genes. Storage proteins, seed-maturation proteins, some protease inhibitors, and the allergen Gly m Bd 28K were classified into the former groups. Lipoxygenase (LOX) family members were present in both the groups, indicating the multi-functionality with different expression patterns. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Motoki S.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station | Kitazawa H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Maeda T.,Hirosaki University | Suzuki T.,Hokkaido University | And 3 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between various cultivation conditions and the amounts of the rutin (RT) and protodioscin (PD) in asparagus spears. Green and white spears were grown in open culture and under two different blanching conditions. Although RT was detected only in the green spears, PD was detected mainly in white spears produced by covering with soil. The RT and PD contents of cladophylls grown in an open field and in a closed cultivation system were also investigated, and the closed system resulted in cladophylls with low RT and high PD, unlike the open field.

Kashiwa T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Inami K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Inami K.,Bridgestone | Fujinaga M.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station | And 4 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Six4, a small protein secreted by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) in tomato xylem sap during infection, triggers Fol race 1-specific resistance (I) in tomato. SIX4 is regarded as an avirulence gene. Although SIX4 is considered unique to Fol race 1, we detected this gene in the cabbage yellows fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) by PCR. Because the genes from Foc and SIX4 in Fol were >99 % identical at the nucleotide level, the Foc gene was designated FocSIX4. The expression of FocSIX4 was detected by RT-PCR in stems and roots of cabbage 8 days after infection with Foc. In contrast with Fol, disruption of FocSIX4 in Foc did not increase virulence to Foc-resistant cabbage cvs. Shutoku-SP and Koikaze. On the contrary, the disruptants had reduced virulence not only on Foc-resistant cultivars but also on Foc-susceptible cv. Shikidori. These results suggested that FocSIX4 is involved in virulence, but not in avirulence, in the cabbage yellows fungus. © 2013 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan.

Kunito T.,Shinshu University | Tsunekawa M.,Shinshu University | Yoshida S.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station | Park H.-D.,Shinshu University | And 3 more authors.
Soil Science | Year: 2012

To explore a possible phosphorus limitation of soil microbial processes, we fractionated phosphorus in Japanese forest soils (10 Inceptisols, three allophanic Andisols, seven nonallophanic Andisols, and one Spodosol) by sequential extraction into inorganic P (Pi) and organic P (Po) in H 2O, 0.5 M NaHCO 3, 0.1 M NaOH, 1 M HCl and conc. HCl fractions, and total P in residual fractions. NaOH-Pi and NaOH-Po fractions were the largest P components in all soil types. Apart from H 2O-Pi, NaOH-Pi, and NaOH-Po, P concentration in each fraction did not differ significantly among soil types. Concentrations of P in fractions H 2O-Pi, H 2O-Po, 0.1 M NaOH-Pi, 0.1 M NaOH-Po, and residual P were correlated with active Al, but not with active Fe, indicating a more significant contribution of Al in controlling P forms in the soils. The proportion of available P (H 2O + NaHCO 3 - P) to total P was negatively affected by active Al and Fe contents and by pH in the soils. High phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase are known to be indicators of low soil P availability, and both activities were higher in soils with low available P in this study, suggesting that microorganisms of these forest soils may be P limited. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Morisaki A.,Yamaguchi University | Yamada N.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station | Yamanaka S.,Yamaguchi University | Matsui K.,Yamaguchi University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Among the soybean germplasm in Japan, two varieties, Nishiyamahitashi 98-5 (NH) and Shinanokurakake (SKK), have an intense seaweed-like flavor after cooking. Gas-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) indicated that a significant amount (11.5 ± 3.46 Îg g-1 for NH and 6.66 ± 0.91 Îg g-1 for SKK) of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was formed after heat treatment. DMS is formed from S-methylmethionine (SMM, vitamin U). SMM was detected in all soybean varieties examined here, but its concentration in NH and SKK seeds was >100-fold higher than in the other varieties and ranged from 75 to 290 Îg g-1. The SMM content and the ability to form DMS upon heat treatment correlated among them. The plumes and radicles contained SMM exclusively. This is the first report of soybean varieties containing SMM at a level equivalent to or higher than that in vegetables known to contain high levels of SMM, for example, turnip, cabbage, and celery. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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