Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station

Shiojiri, Japan

Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station

Shiojiri, Japan
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Kunito T.,Shinshu University | Tsunekawa M.,Shinshu University | Yoshida S.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station | Park H.-D.,Shinshu University | And 3 more authors.
Soil Science | Year: 2012

To explore a possible phosphorus limitation of soil microbial processes, we fractionated phosphorus in Japanese forest soils (10 Inceptisols, three allophanic Andisols, seven nonallophanic Andisols, and one Spodosol) by sequential extraction into inorganic P (Pi) and organic P (Po) in H 2O, 0.5 M NaHCO 3, 0.1 M NaOH, 1 M HCl and conc. HCl fractions, and total P in residual fractions. NaOH-Pi and NaOH-Po fractions were the largest P components in all soil types. Apart from H 2O-Pi, NaOH-Pi, and NaOH-Po, P concentration in each fraction did not differ significantly among soil types. Concentrations of P in fractions H 2O-Pi, H 2O-Po, 0.1 M NaOH-Pi, 0.1 M NaOH-Po, and residual P were correlated with active Al, but not with active Fe, indicating a more significant contribution of Al in controlling P forms in the soils. The proportion of available P (H 2O + NaHCO 3 - P) to total P was negatively affected by active Al and Fe contents and by pH in the soils. High phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase are known to be indicators of low soil P availability, and both activities were higher in soils with low available P in this study, suggesting that microorganisms of these forest soils may be P limited. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Hashiyama A.,Chiba University | Nomura M.,Chiba University | Kurihara J.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station | Toyoshima G.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2013

Autographa nigrisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the target species of the mating disruptant for vegetables, Confuser V. However, emergence of A. nigrisigna does not decrease in the Confuser V treated vegetable fields. As one of the reasons for this phenomenon, migration of mated females into the Confuser V treated area were considered. Thus, we studied the flight ability of female A. nigrisigna by using computer-interfaced actograph and flight mill devices. Flight measurements for mated and unmated individuals 4-to 6-d-old were recorded for 24 h. The results of the actograph assay revealed that mated females moved more actively than unmated females, possibly because of their oviposition behavior. Both the flight duration and flight range, which were measured by the flight mill device, decreased continuously with age and did not show a significant difference between mated and unmated females through the ages from 4 to 6 d. This result indicates that mating status did not directly affect the flight duration or range. From our experiments, it was suggested that females maintain physical energy after mating at the same level as before mating and then mated females locomote more actively around the host plants for oviposition. These speculations are discussed in relation to the control of A. nigrisigna by mating disruption. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Hashiyama A.,Chiba University | Nomura M.,Chiba University | Kurihara J.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station | Toyoshima G.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2011

Three plusiine species, Autographa nigrisigna, Macdunnoughia confusa, and Thysanoplusia intermixta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are commonly found together in lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., fields in Japan. Given the marked morphological similarities between these species and the difficulty associated with discriminating between them using only visual cues, we used multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to distinguish between the three target species. Multiplex PCR uses four primers to simultaneously amplify a specific region of the mitochondrial DNA and produce species-specific banding patterns. The stringency of the method was tested using specimens of different sex, location, and developmental stage, and consistent results were obtained for all samples. Indeed, our method has the potential to clarify the species structure of plusiine species in lettuce fields. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.


PubMed | Chiba University and Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2015

Optimum conditions for obtaining tetraploid were investigated in raphanobrassica, the intergeneric hybrid between radish (Raphanus sativus) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) by treating in vitro plants with an anti-mitotic agent, amiprophosmethyl (APM). Initially, no tetraploids but hexaploids and octaploids were induced by the treatments. Although the leaves of these polyploids of raphanobrassica showed chlorosis during subcultures in in vitro conditions, the chlorosis could be successfully prevented by the ethylene inhibitors, both AVG and AgNO3. Based on this result, AVG was added into medium used for the culture after the chromosome doubling treatment, which subsequently resulted in increased survival rates of the treated plant materials as well as increased production rates of polyploids including tetraploid. These polyploid plants showed obviously different characters from the original diploid plant. The tetraploid plant had bigger sizes in shoot, flower and leaf, and more number of leaves than the diploid. On the other hand, the hexaploid and octaploid plants had smaller sizes in shoots and leaves, and less number of leaves than the diploid. Concentration of glucosinolates, functional substances of Brassicaceae crops, did not significantly differ between diploid and tetraploid of raphanobrassica, but reduced in hexaploid and octaploid.


BACKGROUND: The development of a cultivar resistant to the two-spotted spider mite has provided both ecological and economic benefits to the production of cut flowers. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of resistance to mites using an inbred population of carnations. RESULTS: In the resistant and susceptible plants selected from an inbred population, a difference was recognised in the thickness of the abaxial palisade tissue by microscopic examination of the damaged leaf. Therefore, it was assumed that mites displayed feeding preferences within the internal leaf structure of the carnation leaf. The suitability of the host plant for mites was investigated using several cultivars selected using an index of the thickness from the abaxial leaf surface to the spongy tissue. The results suggested that the cultivar associated with a thicker abaxial tissue lowered the intrinsic rate of natural increase of the mites. The cultivars with a thicker abaxial tissue of over 120 µm showed slight damage in the field test. CONCLUSION: The ability of mites to feed on the spongy tissue during an early life stage from hatching to adult emergence was critical. It was possible to select a cultivar that is resistant to mites under a real cultivation environment by observing the internal structure of the leaf. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry


Asakura T.,Tokyo University of Science | Tamura T.,Tokyo University of Science | Tamura T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Terauchi K.,Tokyo University of Science | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The gene expression profiles in soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds at 4 stages of development, namely, pod, 2-mm bean, 5-mm bean, and full-size bean, were examined by DNA microarray analysis. The total genes of each sample were classified into 4 clusters based on stage of development. Gene expression was strictly controlled by seed size, which coincides with the development stage. First, stage specific gene expression was examined. Many transcription factors were expressed in pod, 2-mm bean and 5-mm bean. In contrast, storage proteins were mainly expressed in full-size bean. Next, we extracted the genes that are differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were extracted using the Rank products method of the Bioconductor software package. These DEGs were sorted into 8 groups using the hclust function according to gene expression patterns. Three of the groups across which the expression levels progressively increased included 100 genes, while 3 groups across which the levels decreased contained 47 genes. Storage proteins, seed-maturation proteins, some protease inhibitors, and the allergen Gly m Bd 28K were classified into the former groups. Lipoxygenase (LOX) family members were present in both the groups, indicating the multi-functionality with different expression patterns. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Moro H.,Shinshu University | Kunito T.,Shinshu University | Saito T.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station | Yaguchi N.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station | Sato T.,Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2014

To evaluate the relationship between the potassium (K) status in the microbial community and the exchangeable K concentration in soils, the effects of K addition on microbial activity were assessed in cultivated Andisols not having received K fertilizer. Potassium limitation was not observed in the microbial community, even in a soil amended with only nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) but not K since 1938, though crop plants in this soil showed severe K deficiency symptoms. Furthermore, in a soil amended with NP + compost, microbial activity was limited by K only after limitation of carbon (C) and N. These results suggest that soil microorganisms demand more C and N than K, even in soils with low K availability, and also that the soil microbial community is less susceptible to K deficiency than are crop plants. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


PubMed | Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science, Saga University and Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2015

Functions of most genes predicted in the soybean genome have not been clarified. A mutant library with a high mutation density would be helpful for functional studies and for identification of novel alleles useful for breeding. Development of cost-effective and high-throughput protocols using next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies is expected to simplify the retrieval of mutants with mutations in genes of interest.To increase the mutation density, seeds of the Japanese elite soybean cultivar Enrei were treated with the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS); M2 seeds produced by M1 plants were treated with EMS once again. The resultant library, which consisted of DNA and seeds from 1536 plants, revealed large morphological and physiological variations. Based on whole-genome re-sequencing analysis of 12 mutant lines, the average number of base changes was 12,796 per line. On average, 691 and 35 per line were missense and nonsense mutations, respectively. Two screening strategies for high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and indexed amplicon sequencing were designed to retrieve the mutants; the mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing as the final step. In comparison with HRM screening of several genes, indexed amplicon sequencing allows one to scan a longer sequence range and skip screening steps and to know the sequence information of mutation because it uses systematic DNA pooling and the index of NGS reads, which simplifies the discovery of mutants with amino acid substitutions.A soybean mutant library with a high mutation density was developed. A high mutation density (1 mutation/74 kb) was achieved by repeating the EMS treatment. The mutation density of our library is sufficiently high to obtain a plant in which a gene is nonsense mutated. Thus, our mutant library and the indexed amplicon sequencing will be useful for functional studies of soybean genes and have a potential to yield useful mutant alleles for soybean breeding.


Sekido K.,Nagoya University | Hayashi Y.,Nagoya University | Yamada K.,Nagoya University | Shiratake K.,Nagoya University | And 3 more authors.
HortScience | Year: 2010

We have used a red-fleshed apple cultivar, Malus ·domestica Pink Pearl, and its progeny, 'JPP 35', as paternal parents for producing new red-fleshed cultivars suitable for fresh use or processing such as pie fillings, dried apple, apple juice, or cider. In this process, we found that the S3-RNase allele of 'Pink Pearl' was linked to its red flesh trait. It was suggested that this trait might be controlled by a new gene apart from the MYB10 (MdMYB10) gene. Using 'JPP 35' (S-RNase allele genotype; S3S7) produced by 'Jonathan' (S7S9) · 'Pink Pearl' (S3Sx) as a paternal parent, we developed a system for producing red-fleshed progenies suitable for fresh use. That is, 96% and 86% of progenies from 'Shinano Sweet' (S1S7) · 'JPP35' (S3S7) and 'Orin' (S2S7) · 'JPP35' (S3S7) containing the S3-RNase allele, respectively, showed the red flesh trait. Similarly, red-fleshed progenies suitable for apple pie or natural red juice could be produced by 'Jonathan' (S7S9) · 'JPP35' (S3S7).


PubMed | Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2016

The development of a cultivar resistant to the two-spotted spider mite has provided both ecological and economic benefits to the production of cut flowers. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of resistance to mites using an inbred population of carnations.In the resistant and susceptible plants selected from an inbred population, a difference was recognised in the thickness of the abaxial palisade tissue by microscopic examination of the damaged leaf. Therefore, it was assumed that mites displayed feeding preferences within the internal leaf structure of the carnation leaf. The suitability of the host plant for mites was investigated using several cultivars selected using an index of the thickness from the abaxial leaf surface to the spongy tissue. The results suggested that the cultivar associated with a thicker abaxial tissue lowered the intrinsic rate of natural increase of the mites. The cultivars with a thicker abaxial tissue of over 120 m showed slight damage in the field test.The ability of mites to feed on the spongy tissue during an early life stage from hatching to adult emergence was critical. It was possible to select a cultivar that is resistant to mites under a real cultivation environment by observing the internal structure of the leaf. 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

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