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Kohyama K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Hanyu T.,Nagano Prefecture General Industrial Technology Center | Hayakawa F.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Sasaki T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to analyze human eating behaviors in chewing and slurping buckwheat noodles. We used electromyography to measure the activity of the jaw-closing, jaw-opening, and lip-closing muscles while healthy adults ate one mouthful of buckwheat noodles. Slurping the noodles required a longer mastication period but smaller muscle activity per movement than chewing the same samples. Total muscle activity was greater in slurping. Slurping also showed a longer average cycle time but greater variances in the cycle time than rhythmical chewing. The mechanical properties of buckwheat noodles significantly differed between the noodle types (half-raw and dry), but the human mastication variables for the two types of noodles were not significantly changed within a subject. Both types of noodles kept for 10 min at 23 °C after being cooked could be consumed with less mastication effort than those immediately served, and this observation corresponded to softening of the noodles during the standing time. Source


Takizawa R.,Nagano Prefecture General Industrial Technology Center
Nihon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Part C | Year: 2013

An easy simulation method makes it possible to introduce an environment-conscious manufacturing process. By considering the production flow to the mass flow, a process can be described as a block which calculates from in and out cost ratio. The manufacturing process can be described in a block diagram by connecting these blocks. The block diagram is turned into one block by equivalent transformations. It facilitates the comparison of cost at a manufacturing process change. And it is able to apply to CO2 emissions of a manufacturing process, too. This paper proposes the idea of a simple method to calculate costs and CO2 emissions on the process change. © 2013 The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. Source


Nagaya S.,Nagano Prefecture General Industrial Technology Center | Nishikiori H.,Shinshu University
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Dye-adsorbing ZnO thin films were prepared on ITO films by electroless deposition. The films were formed in an aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate, dimethylamine-borane, and eosin Y at 328 K. The film thickness was 1.2-2.0 μm. Thinner and larger-plane hexagonal columns were produced from the solution containing a higher concentration of eosin Y. A photocurrent was observed in the electrodes containing such ZnO films during light irradiation. The photoelectrochemical performance of the film was improved by increasing the concentration of eosin Y because of increases in the amount of absorbed photons and the electronic conductivity of ZnO. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Kasai K.,University of Tokyo | Takano J.,Hokkaido University | Miwa K.,University of Tokyo | Miwa K.,Hokkaido University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

Boron homeostasis is important for plants, as boron is essential but is toxic in excess. Under high boron conditions, the Arabidopsis thaliana borate transporter BOR1 is trafficked from the plasma membrane (PM) to the vacuole via the endocytic pathway for degradation to avoid excess boron transport. Here, we show that boron-induced ubiquitination is required for vacuolar sorting of BOR1. We found that a substitution of lysine 590 with alanine (K590A) in BOR1 blocked degradation. BOR1 was mono- or diubiquitinated within several minutes after applying a high concentration of boron, whereas the K590A mutant was not. The K590A mutation abolished vacuolar transport of BOR1 but did not apparently affect polar localization to the inner PM domains. Furthermore, brefeldin A and wortmannin treatment suggested that Lys-590 is required for BOR1 translocation from an early endosomal compartment to multivesicular bodies. Our results show that boron-induced ubiquitination of BOR1 is not required for endocytosis from the PM but is crucial for the sorting of internalized BOR1 to multivesicular bodies for subsequent degradation in vacuoles. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Nagaya S.,Nagano Prefecture General Industrial Technology Center | Nishikiori H.,Shinshu University
Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

Zinc oxide (ZnO) particles were deposited on a very thin titanium dioxide film by a photocatalytic reaction. The particles were formed in an aqueous solution of 0.10moldm -3 zinc nitrate at 343 K. The particles consisted of crystals with 0.20-1.0jim-sized hexagonal columns. A photocurrent was observed in the electrodes containing such ZnO crystals during light irradiation. © 2012 The Chemical Society of Japan. Source

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