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Nagano-shi, Japan

Kato M.,Waseda University | Kato M.,Nagano Prefectural College | Kato M.,Jissen Womens University | Kato M.,Nihon Taiiku Sangyo Co
Industrial Health | Year: 2014

Protecting children from injuries caused by fall accidents from playground equipment is important. Therefore, measures toward minimizing the risk of fall accident injuries are required. The risk of injury can be evaluated using ASTM F1292. In this test, G-max and the HIC are used to estimate the risk of injury. However, the measurement procedure is too complicated for application to a large number of installed equipment. F1292 requires simplified by reducing the number of phases, even with a small risk of loss in accuracy. With this in mind, this study proposes a shortened measurement procedure and a transformation equation to estimate the risk as same as F1292. As the result of experiments, it was revealed that G-max and the HIC values for both procedures linearly increase with drop height. The differences in outcomes between the regression equations of the standardized procedure and those of the shortened procedure can be used as a correction value. They can be added to the value measured by the shortened procedure. This suggests that the combination of the shortened procedure and transformation equation would be equivalent to F1292, with the advantage of being more easily and efficiently applied to the evaluation of installed playground equipment. © 2014 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Source

Kido Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Shizuka F.,Nagano Prefectural College | Shimomura Y.,Nagoya University | Sugiyama T.,Mie University
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2013

Proteins form the most important structural component of cells that constitute the various types of tissue, such as muscle, skin, and bone. Proteins also function as enzymes and hormones to regulate various metabolic processes in the body. The estimated average requirement (EAR) of protein for both men and women who habitually consume mixed protein was evaluated as 0.72 g/kg body weight/d by nitrogen balance studies as the value to maintain nitrogen equilibrium with high quality protein, revised with digestibility of mixed protein in habitual food intake. The recommended intake of protein for infants is normally based on the adequate intake (AI) standard, which reflects the observed mean protein intake of infants fed principally with breast milk for up to 6 mo of age. The EAR of children aged 1-17 y was estimated by the factorial method, which adds the amount required for protein storage because of growth and protein requirement for maintenance. The EAR of protein in the elderly was calculated by meta-analysis, employing 144 data sets obtained from 5 published reports, with 60 subjects, and was found to be 0.85 g of habitual mixed protein/kg body weight/d. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) of protein must be established based on the health risk caused by excessive protein intake. However, no clear evidence to establish this value is available at present, and therefore, the UL of protein cannot be determined. Source

Mizumoto T.,Wakayama University | Kuramochi A.,Sharp Corporation | Mori R.,Nagano Prefectural College
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2014

The objective of this research is to clarify the relationship between the practice of human-centered design (HCD) and the obstacles to applying this approach. Our study is based on research into several factors in the HCD process as applied to the development of hardware devices with embedded software, such as office equipment, home electronics, medical devices and information equipment. From the results of our investigation of 13 companies, we identified several obstacles to applying HCD methods to the development process. Also discussed are the nature of these obstacles, and methods to make better use of the HCD process to avoid such obstacles in future. Previous studies of the HCD process have presented new perspectives by performing various analyses of the benefits of using HCD methods. However, previous studies have not discussed proposals to avoid obstacles, or how to apply the HCD process to company workflows. Therefore, we collected 79 "good cases" and 53 "bad cases" through interviews and questionnaires. We then analyzed those cases, and summarized 4 viewpoints on introducing the HCD process to companies, and 12 approaches for solving these problems. Viewpoints: 1) Establish methods appropriate to each company. 2) Indicate the effects. 3) Share goals. 4) Participate in upstream processes.Approaches: 1) Use easy words. 2) Match HCD methods to the development process. 3) Create simple methods. 4) Compare with other companies. 5) Compare with in-house practices. 6) Share results with users. 7) Publish results as a reference. 8) Create industry standards. 9) Recognize a good point that already exists. 10) Share goals with the relevant departments. 11) Participate in requirement definition process. 12) Create valuable features through observation. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014. Source

Tanaka N.,Shinshu University | Zhang X.,Shinshu University | Sugiyama E.,Nagano Prefectural College | Kono H.,Mochida Pharmaceutical Co. | And 6 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in fish oil is known to improve hepatic steatosis. However, it remains unclear whether such action of EPA is actually caused by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation. To explore the contribution of PPARα to the effects of EPA itself, male wild-type and Ppara-null mice were fed a saturated fat diet for 16 weeks, and highly (>98%)-purified EPA was administered in the last 12 weeks. Furthermore, the changes caused by EPA treatment were compared to those elicited by fenofibrate (FF), a typical PPARα activator. A saturated fat diet caused macrovesicular steatosis in both genotypes. However, EPA ameliorated steatosis only in wild-type mice without PPARα activation, which was evidently different from numerous previous observations. Instead, EPA inhibited maturation of sterol-responsive element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 in the presence of PPARα through down-regulation of SREBP cleavage-activating protein and site-1 protease. Additionally, EPA suppressed fatty acid uptake and promoted hydrolysis of intrahepatic triglycerides in a PPARα-independent manner. These effects were distinct from those of fenofibrate. Although fenofibrate induced NAPDH oxidase and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase and significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxides, EPA caused PPARα-dependent induction of superoxide dismutases, probably contributing to a decrease in the lipid peroxides. These results firstly demonstrate detailed mechanisms of steatosis-ameliorating effects of EPA without PPARα activation and ensuing augmentation of hepatic oxidative stress. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Komatsu M.,Shinshu University | Komatsu M.,Aichi Prefectural University | Tong Y.,Shinshu University | Li Y.,Shinshu University | And 10 more authors.
Genes to Cells | Year: 2010

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor family, regulating fatty acid degradation in many organs. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of brown adipose tissue (BAT) from PPARα-null mice produced a higher-density spot. Proteomic analysis indicated that the protein was pyruvate dehydrogenase β (PDHβ). To observe PDHβ regulation in BAT, the organ was stimulated by long-term cold exposure, and the activities of associated enzymes were investigated. Histological and biochemical analyses of BAT showed a significant decrease in the triglyceride content in wild-type mice and some degree of decrease in PPARα-null mice on cold exposure. Analyses of molecules related to glucose metabolism showed that the expression of PDHβ is under PPARα-specific regulation, and that glucose degradation ability may decrease on cold exposure. In contrast, analyses of molecules related to fatty acid metabolism showed that numerous PPARα/γ target molecules are induced on cold exposure, and that fatty acid degradation ability in wild-type mice is markedly enhanced and also increases to same degree in PPARα-null mice on cold exposure. Thus, this study proposes novel and multiple roles of PPARα in BAT. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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