Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station

Suzaka, Japan

Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station

Suzaka, Japan
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Sugiura T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Ogawa H.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station | Fukuda N.,Apple Inc | Moriguchi T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013

The effects of climate change on the taste and textural attributes of foods remain largely unknown, despite much public interest. On the basis of 30-40 years of records, we provide evidence that the taste and textural attributes of apples have changed as a result of recent global warming. Decreases in both acid concentration, fruit firmness and watercore development were observed regardless of the maturity index used for harvest date (e.g., calendar date, number of days after full bloom, peel colour and starch concentration), whereas in some cases the soluble-solids concentration increased; all such changes may have resulted from earlier blooming and higher temperatures during the maturation period. These results suggest that the qualities of apples in the market are undergoing long-term changes.

Matsumoto S.,Nagoya University | Soejima J.,Apple Inc | Maejima T.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Lopsided apple fruits were found in an orchard consisting of a single commercial cultivar Fuji and pollinizers of crab-apples under conditions of natural pollination. Speculating that it was caused by inadequate partial pollination, we devised an appropriate model. We artificially pollinated one out of five pistils of apple gynoecium, and then investigated the correlations among inadequate partial pollination, seed number, distribution, and fruit shape.It was speculated that a decrease in seed number and an increase in the rate of lopsidedness were caused by inadequate partial pollination. A deviation in seed distribution was also a factor in the occurrence of lopsided fruits. Since many of the main pollinator Osmia cornifrons visited a flower repeatedly at an orchard consisting of a single cultivar and pollinizers, we analyzed the effect of repeated pollination on increasing and improving seed number in fruits and fruit shape, respectively, using artificial pollination of a pollinizer and cultivars with various S-genotypes. Repeated pollination at 24-h intervals did not contribute to fertilization, but those at 4-h intervals contributed significantly as pollen parents of seeds in fruits. The ability of pistil fertilization was maintained until four days after flowering regardless of pollination, but once fertilization occurred, this pistil was not considered to contribute to seed production 24. h after initial pollination. Those results suggested that pollinizers in full bloom be shifted more than a day seemed unnecessary at an orchard with single commercial cultivar, and repeated artificial pollination must be done within one day. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Yara K.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Sasawaki T.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station | Kunimi Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Biological Control | Year: 2010

Hybridization between introduced biological control agents and native species is a nontarget effect of biological control. However, the genetic impacts related to introduced insects, especially from the viewpoint of post-release evaluation, remain largely unexplored. Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) is a parasitoid wasp introduced from China into Japan to control the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). After T. sinensis was first released in 1982, the damage caused by D. kuriphilus fell greatly. Previous studies showed that hybridization between T. sinensis and indigenous Torymus beneficus (the early-spring strain) was rare in the field, but individuals morphologically intermediate between T. sinensis and T. beneficus then appeared in the field. Here, we examined the frequency of hybridization between T. sinensis and the late-spring strain of T. beneficus by using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of nuclear rDNA. Increasing numbers of F1 hybrids were detected every year from 1993 to 1996, reaching 22%. It seems that T. sinensis can hybridize more easily with the late-spring strain of T. beneficus. Morphological indices of the F1 hybrid type ranged between indices of the late-spring strain of T. beneficus and T. sinensis, with considerable overlap. Simultaneous with the occurrence of the F1 hybrids, the indigenous late-spring strain of T. beneficus was rapidly displaced by T. sinensis. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sekido K.,Nagoya University | Hayashi Y.,Nagoya University | Yamada K.,Nagoya University | Shiratake K.,Nagoya University | And 3 more authors.
HortScience | Year: 2010

We have used a red-fleshed apple cultivar, Malus ·domestica Pink Pearl, and its progeny, 'JPP 35', as paternal parents for producing new red-fleshed cultivars suitable for fresh use or processing such as pie fillings, dried apple, apple juice, or cider. In this process, we found that the S3-RNase allele of 'Pink Pearl' was linked to its red flesh trait. It was suggested that this trait might be controlled by a new gene apart from the MYB10 (MdMYB10) gene. Using 'JPP 35' (S-RNase allele genotype; S3S7) produced by 'Jonathan' (S7S9) · 'Pink Pearl' (S3Sx) as a paternal parent, we developed a system for producing red-fleshed progenies suitable for fresh use. That is, 96% and 86% of progenies from 'Shinano Sweet' (S1S7) · 'JPP35' (S3S7) and 'Orin' (S2S7) · 'JPP35' (S3S7) containing the S3-RNase allele, respectively, showed the red flesh trait. Similarly, red-fleshed progenies suitable for apple pie or natural red juice could be produced by 'Jonathan' (S7S9) · 'JPP35' (S3S7).

Yara K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Matsuo K.,Kyushu University | Sasawaki T.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station | Shimoda T.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Moriya S.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2012

We describe here the parasitoid wasps Torymus sinensis Kamijo and T. beneficus Yasumatsu & Kamijo (early-spring and late-spring strains), which are introduced and indigenous natural enemies of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, an invasive chestnut pest in Japan. We recently discovered specimens of T. koreanus Kamijo, endemic in Korea, among Torymus parasitoids collected from D. kuriphilus galls in a Japanese chestnut orchard. In this study we compare the composition of Torymus parasitoids emerging from D. kuriphilus galls before and after the release of T. sinensis. Before the release of T. sinensis, early-spring and late-spring strains of T. beneficus predominated (58. 3 and 20. 8% of specimens collected). However, a few years after the release, both T. beneficus strains had been almost completely displaced by T. sinensis. In contrast to the rapid decrease in T. beneficus, T. koreanus did not decrease drastically before and even after the release of T. sinensis (approximately 10-20% of specimens collected). These results suggest that not a few T. koreanus were present in the Japanese chestnut orchard investigated at least several years after the release of T. sinensis, although both the T. beneficus strains were rapidly displaced by T. sinensis during this period. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.

Motonaga Y.,Niigata University | Nedu K.,Horticultural Research Center | Suzuki T.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station | Kobayashi K.,Shinshu University | Saito Y.,Shinshu University
Proceedings of the SICE Annual Conference | Year: 2013

Grape 'Shine Muscat' is one of the grape cultivars that are being noticed in Japan, and its cultivation area tends to increase at main production region of grape. However, the standard of color evaluation, which is needed for the quality management, is not existed. In this work, it aimed to develop the standard of color evaluation for 'Shine Muscat'. The image of various grape berries was acquired for grasping a color gamut of fruit and analyzing a characteristic of color change. As a result, it was shown that the hue of fruit color changed from about 44 to about 36 and that the saturation increases as the hue decreases. Moreover, it was shown that fruit color change could be expressed using a straight-line model. The calculated equation was considered to be a standard change model of the fruit color for 'Shine muscat'.

Kawaguchi A.,Research Institute for Agriculture | Kondo K.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station | Inoue K.,Research Institute for Agriculture
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis, VAR03-1, was tested as a biological control agent for crown gall of apple. When apple tree roots were soaked in a cell suspension of antagonists before planting in the field, treatment with VAR03-1 significantly reduced the number of plants with tumors and the disease severity. The inhibitory effects of treatment with VAR03-1 and the nonpathogenic R. rhizogenes strain K84, which is commercially used as a biological control agent throughout the world, on apple crown gall were almost identical. VAR03-1 was bacteriocinogenic, producing a halo of inhibition against two species of tumorigenic Rhizobium isolated from galled apple trees. Moreover, VAR03-1 established populations on roots of apple tree rootstock and persisted on roots for 437 days. This is the first report that the nonpathogenic R. vitis VAR03-1 effectively controls crown gall of apple. © 2012 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.

Akbari M.,Nagoya University | Maejima T.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station | Otagaki S.,Nagoya University | Shiratake K.,Nagoya University | Matsumoto S.,Nagoya University
International Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2015

"M.9" rootstock is considered as one of the most useful apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) rootstocks; it produces dwarfing trees efficiently. As "M.9" rootstock shows a poor, brittle, and shallow roots system, we grafted "M.9" rootstocks onto "Marubakaidou" (M. prunifolia Borkh. var. ringo Asami Mo 84-A). We then propagated them by mound layering to establish a high-density root system. It was found that covering the roots with rice seed coat (RSC), RSC + smoked rice seed coat (SRSC), and vermiculite during mound layering was effective for the initiation of rooting. Utilizing RSC and SRSC seemed especially effective for producing "M.9" roots efficiently. © 2015 Matiullah Akbari et al.

Umemura H.,Nagoya University | Shiratake K.,Nagoya University | Matsumoto S.,Nagoya University | Maejima T.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station | Komatsu H.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station
HortScience | Year: 2011

We re-investigated the flesh color and S-genotypes of progenies of red-fleshed apple cultivar JPP35, which was produced by 'Jonathan' × 'Pink Pearl', and clarified that 100% and 96% of progenies from 'Shinano Sweet' (S 1S 7) × 'JPP35' (S 3S 7) and 'Orin' (S 2S 7) × 'JPP35' (S 3S 7) containing S3-RNase allele, respectively, showed the red flesh trait. Using this tight linkage between red flesh trait and self- and cross-compatibility relating allele such as S 3-RNase allele, we showed suitable cultivar combinations for efficient production of various red-fleshed apples. We also identified an unknown S-RNase allele in 'Pink Pearl' as S 11 and determined its partial genomic sequence, including a complete intron with its known S 3-RNase allele.

Akbari M.,Nagoya University | Yamaguchi M.,Nagoya University | Maejima T.,Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station | Otagaki S.,Nagoya University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2016

We investigated S-RNase genotypes of nine useful Afghan apple cultivars including six original cultivars and one rootstock. We also determined S-RNase genotypes of 11 apple cultivars and lineages and seven rootstocks in Japan. We speculated regarding the unidentified parents of cultivars and lineages from the S-RNase genotypes and their fruit and branch characteristics and also identified mistaken parents. We compiled a database of the apple S-RNase genotypes of 622 apple cultivars investigated, which included a survey system of cultivar combinations showing those that were fully incompatible, semicompatible, and fully compatible, written in the Pashto language. © 2016 Matiullah Akbari et al.

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