Kamemura K.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2017
Of the FET (fused in sarcoma [FUS]/Ewing sarcoma protein [EWS]/TATA binding proteinassociated factor 15 [TAF15]) family of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle proteins, FUS and TAF15 are consistently and EWS variably found in inclusion bodies in neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with FUS. It is speculated that dysregulation of FET proteins at the post-translational level is involved in their cytoplasmic deposition. Here, the O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation stoichiometry of the FET proteins was chemoenzymatically analyzed, and it was found that only EWS is dynamically glycosylated with a high stoichiometry in the neural cell lines tested and in mouse brain. It was also confirmed that EWS, but not FUS and TAF15, is glycosylated with a high stoichiometry not only in the neural cells but also in the non-neural cell lines tested. These results indicate that O-GlcNAc glycosylation imparts a physicochemical property on EWS that is distinct from that of the other FET proteins in most of cell lineages or tissues. © 2016 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.
Ogawa M.,Nagoya University |
Sawaguchi S.,Nagoya University |
Kamemura K.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology |
Okajima T.,Nagoya University
Experimental Neurology | Year: 2015
Addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to the hydroxyl group of serine and threonine residues (O-GlcNAcylation) is a post-translational modification common to multicellular eukaryotes. To date, O-GlcNAcylations have been divided into two categories: the first involves nucleocytoplasmic and mitochondrial (intracellular) O-GlcNAcylation catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), and the second involves O-GlcNAcylation in the secretory pathways (extracellular) catalyzed by epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain-specific O-GlcNAc transferase (EOGT). Intracellular O-GlcNAcylation is involved in essential cellular and physiological processes such as synaptic activity, neuronal morphogenesis, and learning and memory. Moreover, intracellular O-GlcNAc might have a neuroprotective effect, protecting against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. EGF repeats on extracellular matrix proteins and the extracellular region of transmembrane proteins have recently been found to be modified by O-GlcNAc in the mouse cerebral cortex. EOGT is responsible for Adams-Oliver syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterized by aplasia cutis congenita and terminal transverse limb defects, often accompanied by cardiovascular and neurological defects. Thus, a mechanistic understanding of O-GlcNAc in the regulation of its target proteins is of importance from both a basic science and a clinical-translational perspective. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the physiological and pathological significances of both types of O-GlcNAcylations found in the nervous system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Hamasaki M.,Osaka University |
Furuta N.,Osaka University |
Matsuda A.,Japan National Institute of Information and Communications Technology |
Matsuda A.,Osaka University |
And 11 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2013
Autophagy is a tightly regulated intracellular bulk degradation/recycling system that has fundamental roles in cellular homeostasis. Autophagy is initiated by isolation membranes, which form and elongate as they engulf portions of the cytoplasm and organelles. Eventually isolation membranes close to form double membrane-bound autophagosomes and fuse with lysosomes to degrade their contents. The physiological role of autophagy has been determined since its discovery, but the origin of autophagosomal membranes has remained unclear. At present, there is much controversy about the organelle from which the membranes originate-the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria and plasma membrane. Here we show that autophagosomes form at the ER-mitochondria contact site in mammalian cells. Imaging data reveal that the pre-autophagosome/ autophagosome marker ATG14 (also known as ATG14L) relocalizes to the ER-mitochondria contact site after starvation, and the autophagosome-formation marker ATG5 also localizes at the site until formation is complete. Subcellular fractionation showed that ATG14 co-fractionates in the mitochondria-associated ER membrane fraction under starvation conditions. Disruption of the ER-mitochondria contact site prevents the formation of ATG14 puncta. The ER-resident SNARE protein syntaxin 17 (STX17) binds ATG14 and recruits it to the ER-mitochondria contact site. These results provide new insight into organelle biogenesis by demonstrating that the ER-mitochondria contact site is important in autophagosome formation. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Tsuchiya N.,Monash University |
Taguchi S.,Hokkaido University |
Saigo H.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
Neuroscience Research | Year: 2016
One of the most mysterious phenomena in science is the nature of conscious experience. Due to its subjective nature, a reductionist approach is having a hard time in addressing some fundamental questions about consciousness. These questions are squarely and quantitatively tackled by a recently developed theoretical framework, called integrated information theory (IIT) of consciousness. In particular, IIT proposes that a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS) is identical to conscious experience. However, there has been no principled way to assess the claimed identity. Here, we propose to apply a mathematical formalism, category theory, to assess the proposed identity and suggest that it is important to consider if there exists a proper translation between the domain of conscious experience and that of the MICS. If such translation exists, we postulate that questions in one domain can be answered in the other domain; very difficult questions in the domain of consciousness can be resolved in the domain of mathematics. We claim that it is possible to empirically test if such a functor exists, by using a combination of neuroscientific and computational approaches. Our general, principled and empirical framework allows us to assess the relationship between the domain of consciousness and the domain of mathematical structures, including those suggested by IIT. © 2015 The Authors.
Suzuki Y.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine |
Suzuki Y.,Ohu University |
Nagai N.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology |
Umemura K.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2016
Cerebrovascular homeostasis is maintained by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which forms a mechanical and functional barrier between systemic circulation and the central nervous system (CNS). In patients with ischemic stroke, the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is used to accelerate recanalization of the occluded vessels. However, rt-PA is associated with a risk of increasing intracranial bleeding (ICB). This effect is thought to be caused by the increase in cerebrovascular permeability though various factors such as ischemic reperfusion injury and the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), but the detailed mechanisms are unknown. It was recently found that rt-PA treatment enhances BBB permeability not by disrupting the BBB, but by activating the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system. The VEGF regulates both the dissociation of endothelial cell (EC) junctions and endothelial endocytosis, and causes a subsequent increase in vessel permeability through the VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) activation in ECs. Here, we review the possibility that rt-PA increases the penetration of toxic molecules derived from the bloodstream including rt-PA itself, without disrupting the BBB, and contributes to these detrimental processes in the cerebral parenchyma. © 2016 Suzuki, Nagai and Umemura.
Ohshima K.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2012
L1 elements are mammalian non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons, or long interspersed elements (LINEs), that significantly influence the dynamics and fluidity of the genome. A series of observations suggest that plant L1-clade LINEs, just as mammalian L1s, mobilize both short interspersed elements (SINEs) and certain messenger RNA by recognizing the 3′-poly(A) tail of RNA. However, one L1 lineage in monocots was shown to possess a conserved 3′-end sequence with a solid RNA structure also observed in maize and sorghum SINEs. This strongly suggests that plant LINEs require a particular 3′-end sequence during initiation of reverse transcription. As one L1-clade LINE was also found to share the 3′-end sequence with a SINE in a green algal genome, I propose that the ancestral L1-clade LINE in the common ancestor of green plants may have recognized the specific RNA template, with stringent recognition then becoming relaxed during the course of plant evolution. © 2012 The Author.
Koyama T.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology |
Kamemura K.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2015
The balance between bone formation and bone resorption is maintained by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and an imbalance in this bone metabolism leads to osteoporosis. Here, we found that osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells is promoted by the inactivation of O-linked β-. N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) and suppressed by the inactivation of O-GlcNAc transferase, as indicated by extracellular matrix calcification. The expression of osteogenic genes such as alp, ocn, and bsp during osteoblast differentiation was positively regulated in a O-GlcNAc glycosylation-dependent manner. Because it was confirmed that Ets1 and Runx2 are the two key transcription factors responsible for the expression of these osteogenic genes, their transcriptional activity might therefore be regulated by O-GlcNAc glycosylation. However, osteoclast differentiation of RAW264 cells, as indicated by the expression and activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, was unaffected by the inactivation of either O-GlcNAcase or O-GlcNAc transferase. Our findings suggest that an approach to manipulate O-GlcNAc glycosylation could be useful for developing the therapeutics for osteoporosis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Li Q.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology |
Kamemura K.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2014
Although the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) proto-oncoprotein is found in the nucleus and cytosol and is associated with the cell membrane, the regulatory mechanisms of its subcellular localization are still unclear. Here we found that adipogenic stimuli induce the nuclear localization of EWS in 3T3-L1 cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation in the C-terminal PY-nuclear localization signal of EWS was negative throughout adipogenesis. Instead, an adipogenesis-dependent increase in O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation of EWS was observed. Pharmacological inactivation of O-GlcNAcase in preadipocytes promoted perinuclear localization of EWS. Our findings suggest that the nuclear localization of EWS is partly regulated by the glycosylation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoshina R.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014
Background: DNA comparison is becoming the leading approach to the analysis of microbial diversity. For eukaryotes, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) has emerged as a conspicuous molecule that is useful for distinguishing between species. Because of the small number of usable ITS data in GenBank, ITS2 sequence comparisons have only been used for limited taxa. However, major institutions with planktonic algal culture collections have now released small subunit (SSU) to ITS rDNA sequence data for their collections. This development has uplifted the level of molecular systematics for these algae. Results: Forty-three strains of green algae isolated from German inland waters were investigated by using SSU-ITS rDNA sequencing. The strains were isolated through the direct plating method. Many of the strains went extinct during the years of culture. Thus, it could be expected that the surviving strains would be common, vigorous species. Nevertheless, 12 strains did not match any known species for which rDNA sequences had been determined. Furthermore, the identity of one strain was uncertain even at the genus level. Conclusions: The aforementioned results show that long-forgotten and neglected collections may be of great significance in understanding microbial diversity, and that much work still needs to be done before the diversity of freshwater green algae can be fully described. © 2014 Hoshina; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Ohshima K.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology |
Igarashi K.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2010
Domain shuffling has provided extraordinarily diverse functions to proteins. Nevertheless, how newly combined domains are coordinated to create novel functions remains a fundamental question of genetic and phenotypic evolution. Previously, we reported a unique mechanism of gene creation, whereby new combinations of functional domains are assembled from distinct genes at the RNA level, reverse transcribed, and integrated into the genome by the L1 retrotransposon. The novel gene PIPSL, created by the fusion of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K1A) and 26S proteasome subunit (S5a/PSMD4) genes, is specifically transcribed in human and chimpanzee testes.We present the first evidence for the translation of PIPSL in humans. The human PIPSL locus showed a low nucleotide diversity within 11 populations (125 individuals) compared with other genomic regions such as introns and overall chromosomes. It was equivalent to the average for coding sequences or exons from other genes, suggesting that human PIPSL has some function and is conserved among modern populations. Two linked amino acid-altering single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the PIPSL kinase domain of non-African populations. They are positioned in the vicinity of the substrate-binding cavity of the parental PIP5K1A protein and change the charge of both residues. The relatively rapid expansion of this haplotype might indicate a selective advantage for it in modern humans.We determined the evolutionary fate of PIPSL domains created by domain shuffling. During hominoid diversification, the S5a-derived domain was retained in all lineages, whereas the ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM) 1 in the domain experienced critical amino acid replacements at an early stage, being conserved under subsequent high levels of nonsynonymous substitutions to UIM2 and other domains, suggesting that adaptive evolution diversified these functional compartments. Conversely, the PIP5K1A-derived domain is degenerated in gibbons and gorillas. These observations provide a possible scheme of domain shuffling in which the combined parental domains are not tightly linked in the novel chimeric protein, allowing for changes in their functional roles, leading to their fine-tuning. Selective pressure toward a novel function initially acted on one domain, whereas the other experienced a nearly neutral state. Over time, the latter also gained a new function or was degenerated. © 2010 The Author.