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Edmonton, Canada

Brouwer C.P.J.M.,Leiden University | Rahman M.,NAEJA Pharmaceutical Inc. | Welling M.M.,Leiden University

There is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial drugs especially for combating the rise of infections caused by multi-resistant pathogens such as MRSA and VRSA. The problem of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms is expected to increase disproportionally and controlling of infections is becoming difficult because of the rapid spread of those micro-organisms. Primary therapy with classical antibiotics is becoming more ineffective. Combinational therapy of antibiotics with antimicrobial peptides (AMP's) has been suggested as an alternative approach to improve treatment outcome. Their unique mechanism of action and safety profile makes AMP's appealing candidates for simultaneous or sequential use in different cases of infections. In this review, for antimicrobial treatment the application of synthetic antimicrobial peptide hLF(1-11), derived from the first 11 amino acids of human lactoferrin is evaluated in both pre-clinical and clinical settings. Present information indicates that this derivate from lactoferrin is well tolerated in pre-clinical tests and clinical trials and thus hLF(1-11) is an interesting candidate for further exploration in various clinical indications of obscure infections, including meningitis. Another approach of using AMP's is their use in prevention of infections e.g. as coating for dental or bone implants or in biosensing applications or useful as infection specific radiopharmaceutical. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Blair W.S.,Pfizer | Blair W.S.,Genentech | Pickford C.,Pfizer | Irving S.L.,Pfizer | And 20 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens

Despite a high current standard of care in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, multidrug-resistant strains continue to emerge, underscoring the need for additional novel mechanism inhibitors that will offer expanded therapeutic options in the clinic. We report a new class of small molecule antiretroviral compounds that directly target HIV-1 capsid (CA) via a novel mechanism of action. The compounds exhibit potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and HIV-2, and inhibit both early and late events in the viral replication cycle. We present mechanistic studies indicating that these early and late activities result from the compound affecting viral uncoating and assembly, respectively. We show that amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA are sufficient to confer resistance to this class of compounds, identifying CA as the target in infected cells. A high-resolution co-crystal structure of the compound bound to HIV-1 CA reveals a novel binding pocket in the N-terminal domain of the protein. Our data demonstrate that broad-spectrum antiviral activity can be achieved by targeting this new binding site and reveal HIV CA as a tractable drug target for HIV therapy. © 2010 Blair et al. Source

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