Gildea S.,Naas Co. |
Arkins S.,University of Limerick |
Walsh C.,Trinity College Dublin |
Cullinane A.,Naas Co.
Vaccine | Year: 2011
Many racing authorities, sales companies and equestrian bodies have mandatory vaccination policies for equine influenza (EI). The consequences of lack of vaccine efficacy include clinical disease, disruption to training programmes, the cancellation of equestrian events and the introduction of virus to susceptible populations. The correlation between antibody against the virus haemagglutinin and protection against influenza has been well established. The objective of this study was to compare the antibody responses of 66 unvaccinated Thoroughbred weanlings on four different stud farms, following primary vaccination (V1, V2 and V3) with the five EI vaccines commercially available in Ireland (Duvaxyn IET Plus, Equilis Resequin, Equip FT, Equilis Prequenza Te, ProteqFlu Te). Antibody responses were monitored for 6 months post V3 by single radial haemolysis. The pattern of antibody response was similar for all vaccines and for all antigens tested. A rapid decline of antibody level was observed by 3 months post V2 for all vaccines. The antibody response of the horses vaccinated with the whole virus vaccine Duvaxyn IET Plus was significantly higher than that of the horses vaccinated with the other four products. Five weanlings had maternally derived antibodies (MDA) at the time of V1. The canary pox recombinant vaccine, subunit vaccine and whole virus inactivated vaccines administered to these weanlings did not induce a detectable antibody response against the background of MDA but effectively primed the animals as revaccination resulted in a strong antibody response. In this study 43% of the weanlings failed to seroconvert after V1. This high incidence of poor responders has not been reported in previous experimental studies relating to these products. The poor responders were observed in all vaccine groups except those vaccinated with Duvaxyn IET Plus. Post V2 the incidence of poor responders was reduced to 7% and all horses responded to V3. The study demonstrates that independent evaluation of influenza vaccine performance in the field is critical to add to the body of knowledge gained from experimental challenge experiments carried out for regulatory or marketing purposes. © 2011 . Source
Gildea S.,Naas Co. |
Quinlivan M.,Naas Co. |
Murphy B.A.,University College Dublin |
Cullinane A.,Naas Co.
Vaccine | Year: 2013
Previous studies in experimental ponies using interferon gamma (IFN-. γ) as a marker for cell mediated immune (CMI) response demonstrated an increase in IFN-. γ gene expression following vaccination with an ISCOM subunit, a canarypox recombinant and more recently, an inactivated whole virus vaccine. The objective of this study was to carry out an independent comparison of both humoral antibody and CMI responses elicited following vaccination with all these vaccine presentation systems. Antibody response of 44 Thoroughbred weanlings was monitored for three weeks following the second dose of primary vaccination (V2) by single radial haemolysis (SRH). The pattern of antibody response was similar for all vaccines. The antibody response of horses vaccinated with the inactivated whole virus vaccine (Duvaxyn IE-T Plus) was superior to that of the horses vaccinated with the ISCOM-matrix subunit (Equilis Prequenza Te) and canarypox recombinant (ProteqFlu-Te) vaccine. In this study 39% of weanlings failed to seroconvert following their first dose of primary vaccination (V1). Poor response to vaccination (H3N8) was observed among weanlings vaccinated with Equilis Prequenza Te and ProteqFlu-Te but not among those vaccinated with Duvaxyn IE-T Plus. PAXgene bloods were collected on days 0, 2, 7 and 14 following V1. Gene expression levels of IFN-. γ, IL-1β (proinflammatory cytokine) and IL-4 (B cell stimulating cytokine) were measured using RT-PCR. Mean gene expression levels of IL-1β and IL-4 peaked on day 14 post vaccination. The increase in IL-4 gene expression by horses vaccinated with Equilis Prequenza Te was significantly greater to those vaccinated with the other two products. Vaccination with all three vaccines resulted in a significant increase in IFN-. γ gene expression which peaked at 7 days post V1. Overall, there was no significant difference in IFN-. γ gene expression by the horses vaccinated with the whole inactivated, the subunit and the canarypox recombinant vaccines included in this study. © 2013. Source
Khan S.A.,Naas Co. |
Stephens L.R.,Naas Co. |
O'Riordan D.,Naas Co. |
Rothwell J J.,Naas Co.
Surgical Chronicles | Year: 2011
Background: For day case laparoscopic surgery to be successful, patient selection is of the utmost importance. Factors that lead to overstay and readmission must be identified at an early stage. This study aims to identify patient-related factors that predis-pose to readmission or overstay following day case laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair surgery. Methods: A cohort study of patients undergoing elective day case laparoscopic hernia repair (TEP) from 2004 to 2009 was un-dertaken. A total number of 163 patients were included in this study. Patient age, social circumstances, co morbidities and ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) score were recorded. Reasons documented for overstay and readmission and duration were also recorded. Results: 21 patients (12.8%) following the procedure overstayed, or were readmitted at a later date. 3.7% (n=6) (p=0.05, CI 95%) of patients were readmitted and 9.2% (n=15) (p=0.05, CI 95%) overstayed. 23 of the 163 patients included in this study were classified as ASA III, and 60.87% (14/23) of these patients were readmitted or overstayed, as compared to 8.77% (5/57) of ASA II patients and 2.41% (2/83) of ASA I patients. Post-operative pain 19% (4/21) and urinary retention 52.3% (11/21) were the lead-ing causes for readmission/overstay. Conclusions: Day case laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is a feasible and safe option and should be performed in the main. Me-ticulous pre-assessment and identification of risk factors for overstay and readmission is a fundamental component of delivery of ambulatory day surgery. The authors conclude that ASA score of III or more and increasing age correlate with an increasing incidence of overstay and readmission and therefore we would recommend that these factors are taken into consideration when planning a day case procedure. Source