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Rajendranagar, India

Ramesh P.,NAARM | Nagendra Rao T.,Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemical Ltd
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2013

A fixed-plot field experiment was conducted during 2010 and 2011 at Hyderabad, to study the effect of conservation agricultural (minimum tillage, crop residue and cover crop) and nutrient management practices (recommended dose of fertilizers, integrated nutrient management, organic nutrient management, fertilizers based on soil test crop response, and customized fertilizers) on the productivity, soil fertility, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency of castor {Ricinus communis (L.)}-sorghum {Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench} cropping system in rainfed Alfisols. There was no significant difference between the conservation and conventional agricultural practices with reference to yield attributes, seed yield and quality of either castor or sorghum. However, conservation agricultural practices resulted in higher castor equivalent yield, CEY (2.24 t/ha), economic returns (benefit cost ratio 1.72) besides improving soil organic carbon (0.41%) compared to conventional practices (2.081 t/ha of CEY, 1.60 B:C ratio and 0.37% soil organic carbon). Among nutrient management practices, customized fertilizers and fertilizers based on soil test crop response (STCR) resulted in about 18 and 15% increase in castor and sorghum seed yields, respectively compared to recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF). Application of customized fertilizers resulted in the highest system productivity (2.426 t/ha of CEY) followed by STCR (2.403 t/ha of CEY) compared to RDF (2.068 t/ha of CEY). Economic returns also followed trend similar to CEY. Organic nutrient management recorded the highest soil organic carbon (0.42%), soil available N (220 kg/ha) and K (434 kg/ha) compared to the control. Customized fertilizers recorded the highest uptake of nutrients in both castor (64.1-20.6-37.3 kg NPK/ha) and sorghum (118.3-39.3-152.5 kg NPK/ha) compared to RDF. Agronomic efficiency of N, P and K was in general, higher in either STCR or customized fertilizer treatments, whereas physiological efficiency of N, P and K was higher in INM, especially in castor. Source

Mukherjee R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | De U.K.,NAARM | Ram G.C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

Enhancement of the diseased mammary gland immunity and therapeutic potential of hydro-methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia; stem) in bovine subclinical mastitis was investigated. Somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), phagocytic activity, and leukocyte lysosomal enzymes like myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase activity and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) level were evaluated after intramammary infusion of hydro-methanolic extract (stem) of T. cordifolia in diseased cows. The qualitative analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polysaccharide, phenol, alkaloid, and protein. Intramammary infusion of hydro-methanolic extract of T. cordifolia treatment initially enhanced the SCC; thereafter, significant reduction in cell count (P < 0.05) was observed on day 15 of the treatment period, however, reduction in TBC was observed from day 3 onwards. The phagocytic activity of milk polymorphonuclear cells enhanced in the diseased cows treated with the T. cordifolia extract. Similarly, the lysosomal enzyme content of the milk polymorphonuclear cells enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) in diseased cows treated with T. cordifolia. The IL-8 level in milk serum also increased significantly (P < 0.05) in diseased cows treated with the herb extract. The results suggest that the hydro-methanolic extract of T. cordifolia (stem) possesses antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, the biological activity of the Tinospora cordifolia extract at standardized dose against bovine subclinical mastitis is reported for the first time. Development of alternative therapy with medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use the conventional allopathic drugs under certain farming system or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Kalpana Sastry R.,NAARM | Rashmi H.B.,NAARM | Rao N.H.,NAARM
Food Policy | Year: 2011

A framework for assessment of the potential of nanotechnology for enhancing food security in India is developed. Agricultural productivity, soil health, water security, and food quality in storage and distribution are identified as the primary determinants of food security that can be impacted by developments in nanotechnology. The framework is developed in two stages: (i) mapping nanotechnology to agri-food thematic areas across the agricultural value chain and (ii) from the thematic areas to the food security determinants. Using published literature and patents data, a model to organize and map nanotechnology research to the agri-food thematic areas and food security determinants is developed through a specially designed database. The model allows identification and prioritization of potential areas for nanotechnology applications to enhance food security. Comparisons of this technology with green revolution technologies and agricultural biotechnology indicate a possibility of greater and faster impact on all components of the agri-value chain with concurrent social, ethical, legal and environmental implications. There is a need for investments in capacity building and development of an agri-nanotechnology infrastructure in India, and for ex ante assessment of its implications for society. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Paul A.K.,NAARM | Paul R.K.,NAARM | Das S.,NAARM | Behera S.K.,NAARM | Dhandapani A.,NAARM
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

In the present investigation, five different non-parametric stability measures are proposed based on the ranks of the genotypes to assess genotype-environment interaction, when the data does not satisfy the normality assumption. The behaviours of developed stability indices are studied by simulation technique under the assumption of normal as well as non-normal distributions such as log-normal, gamma, beta and t-distributions. These indices are compared empirically by using power of the test and type-I error. Results from the non-parametric analysis with the help of simulation study demonstrated that the proposed index A4 outperformed other indices in normal as well as nonnormal data scenarios. Source

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