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Hindricks G.,University of Leipzig | Pokushalov E.,State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology | Urban L.,National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases | Taborsky M.,Na Homolce Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology | Year: 2010

Background-Current methods for detecting atrial fibrillation (AF) have limited diagnostic yield. Continuous monitoring with automatic arrhythmia detection and classification may improve detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic AF and subsequent patient treatment. The study purpose was to quantify the performance of the first implantable leadless cardiac monitor (ICM) with dedicated AF detection capabilities. Methods and Results-Patients (n=247) with an implanted ICM (Reveal XT, Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) who were likely to present with paroxysmal AF were selected. A special Holter device stored 46 hours of subcutaneously recorded ECG, ICM markers, and 2 surface ECG leads. The ICM automatic arrhythmia classification was compared with the core laboratory classification of the surface ECG. Of the 206 analyzable Holter recordings collected, 76 (37%) contained at least 1 episode of core laboratory classified AF. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for identifying patients with any AF were 96.1%, 85.4%, 79.3%, and 97.4%, respectively. The AF burden measured with the ICM was very well correlated with the reference value derived from the Holter (Pearson coefficient=0.97). The overall accuracy of the ICM for detecting AF was 98.5%. Conclusions-In this ICM validation study, the dedicated AF detection algorithm reliably detected the presence or absence of AF and the AF burden was accurately quantified. The ICM is a promising new diagnostic and monitoring tool for the clinician to treat AF patients independently of symptoms. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefits of the technology. Clinical Trial Registration-clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00680927. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Determination of mTREM-1 expression on monocytes has been investigated as a perspective diagnostic method to distinguish infectious from non-infectious etiology of the inflammation. The aims of our study were: i) to investigate the expression of TREM-1 on monocytes in septic patients and in those after elective spinal surgery without infection; ii) to assess the dynamics of mTREM-1 expression on monocytes and its association with the outcome in patients with severe sepsis. Fifty two patients with severe sepsis, 20 healthy volunteers, and 20 patients after elective spinal surgery were involved in our study. TREM-1 expression on monocytes was evaluated by flow cytometry. Compared with the group of healthy adults (median 42.0, interquartile range (IQR) 30.3-76 MFI), mTREM-1 expression was increased in the group of septic patients both at entry (median 138.4, IQR 78.4-187.5 MFI) and the last examination (median 136.5, IQR 69.0-170.0 MFI) as well as in patients 24 hours after spinal surgery (median 138.5, IQR 45.3-165.5 MFI). The increase was statistically significant. mTREM-1 expression in patients undergoing spinal surgery and those with severe sepsis did not differ. TREM-1 expression on the monocytes in survivors was higher than in non-survivors (p=0.007). TREM-1 levels in septic non-surviving patients correlated weakly with TNF-α levels (r=0.38; p=0.003) and with HLA-DR/CD14 levels (r=0.38; p=0.003). Increased TREM-1 expression on monocytes is not associated exclusively with the presence of systemic infection.

Jomova K.,Constantine the Philosopher University | Vondrakova D.,Na Homolce Hospital | Lawson M.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava | Valko M.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), are age-related disorders characterized by the deposition of abnormal forms of specific proteins in the brain. AD is characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Biochemical analysis of amyloid plaques revealed that the main constituent is fibrillar aggregates of a 39-42 residue peptide referred to as the amyloid-β protein (Aβ). PD is associated with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. One of the pathological hallmarks of PD is the presence of intracellular inclusions called Lewy bodies that consist of aggregates of the presynaptic soluble protein called α-synuclein. There are various factors influencing the pathological depositions, and in general, the cause of neuronal death in neurological disorders appears to be multifactorial. However, it is clear, that the underlying factor in the neurological disorders is increased oxidative stress substantiated by the findings that the protein side-chains are modified either directly by reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS), or indirectly, by the products of lipid peroxidation. The increased level of oxidative stress in AD brain is reflected by the increased brain content of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) both capable of stimulating free radical formation (e.g. hydroxyl radicals via Fenton reaction), increased protein and DNA oxidation in the AD brain, enhanced lipid peroxidation, decreased level of cytochrome c oxidase and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxynitrite, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). AGEs, mainly through their interaction with receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), further activate signaling pathways, inducing formation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). The conjugated aromatic ring of tyrosine residues is a target for free-radical attack, and accumulation of dityrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine has also been reported in AD brain. The oxidative stress linked with PD is supported by both postmortem studies and by studies showing the increased level of oxidative stress in the substantia nigra pars compacta, demonstrating thus the capacity of oxidative stress to induce nigral cell degeneration. Markers of lipid peroxidation include 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), 4-oxo-trans-2-nonenal (4-ONE), acrolein, and 4-oxo-trans-2-hexenal, all of which are well recognized neurotoxic agents. In addition, other important factors, involving inflammation, toxic action of nitric oxide (NO•), defects in protein clearance, and mitochondrial dysfunction all contribute to the etiology of PD. It has been suggested that several individual antioxidants or their combinations can be neuroprotective and decrease the risk of AD or slow its progression. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of redox metals Fe and Cu and non-redox metal zinc (Zn) in oxidative stress-related etiology of AD and PD. Attention is focused on the metal-induced formation of free radicals and the protective role of antioxidants [glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (ascorbic acid)], vitamin E (α-Tocopherol), lipoic acid, flavonoids [catechins, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)], and curcumin. An alternate hypothesis topic in AD is also discussed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Koruth J.S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Dukkipati S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Miller M.A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Neuzil P.,Na Homolce Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Heart Rhythm | Year: 2012

Background: Irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation can be insufficient to eliminate intramurally located septal atrial flutter (AFL) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) circuits. Bipolar ablation between 2 ablation catheters may be considered for such circuits. Objective: To evaluate the utility of bipolar irrigated ablation to terminate arrhythmias resistant to unipolar ablation. Methods: In vitro: Bipolar and sequential unipolar RF ablation lesions were placed on porcine ventricular tissue in a saline bath to assess for lesion transmurality. Clinical: 3 patients with atypical septal flutter (AFL), 4 patients with septal VT, and 2 with left ventricle free-wall VT, all of whom failed sequential unipolar RF ablation, underwent bipolar RF ablation using irrigated catheters placed on either surface of the interatria/interventricular septum and left ventricle free-wall, respectively. Results: In vitro: Bipolar RF was found to be more likely to achieve transmural lesions (82% vs 33%; P =.001) and could do so in tissues with thicknesses of up to 25 mm. Clinical: All 5 AFLs (3 patients) were successfully terminated with bipolar RF. In follow-up, AFL recurred in 2 of the 3 patients and atrial fibrillation and AFL recurred in 1 of the 3. All 3 thereafter underwent repeat procedures with successful maintenance of sinus rhythm in 2 of the 3 patients (6-month follow-up). In the VT subgroup, 5 of 6 septal VTs and 2 of 3 free-wall VTs were terminated successfully during ablation. In follow-up (12 months), 2 of the 4 patients in the septal bipolar group and 1 of the 2 patients in the free-wall group remained free of VT. Conclusions: Bipolar RF can be used to terminate arrhythmias in select patients with tachyarrhythmias. © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

Bonatti J.,Cleveland Clinic | Vetrovec G.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Riga C.,Imperial College London | Wazni O.,Cleveland Clinic | Stadler P.,Na Homolce Hospital
Nature Reviews Cardiology | Year: 2014

Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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