Time filter

Source Type

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Anisimov V.N.,Petrov Research Institute of Oncology | Zharinov G.M.,The Surgical Center
Advances in Gerontology | Year: 2014

This article presents data on the average age of death (AAD) of 49064 representatives of different creative professions: visual artists (painters, sculptors, and architects, n = 8458), musicians (composers, conductors, singers, pianists, violinists, organists, etc., n = 7883), literary people (poets and writers, n = 11 488), and academics (n = 21 235). The AAD of literary people was significantly (p < 0.001) less than the age of death of artists, musicians, and scientists, while scientists lived longer than the other categories (p < 0.001). Females of any of the investigated professions lived significantly longer than males (p < 0.02). Analysis of the dynamics of the AAD from the 1st century before the Christian Era until the end of the 20th century showed that the AAD of representatives of various professions gradually but unevenly increased. Artists and males born after 1900 lived significantly longer (p < 0.001) than in previous historical periods. The AAD of scientists of both sexes who were born after 1900 was significantly higher (p < 0.002) in comparison with scientists who lived in the 19th century (p < 0.001). The first five places for life span among males are occupied by Nobel laureates (78.8 years), academics (72.7 years), corresponding members of the RAS (71.7 years), conductors (71.1 years), and scientists (71.0 years). Rock musicians have shorter lives than other people, 43.6 years, bards lived 53.6 years, and poets, 61.6 years. Among females, the first five places for AAD are occupied by conductors (83.2 years), harpists (80.9 years), RAS academics (80.3 years), harpsichordists (79.1 years) and violinists (78.2 years). Females who devote themselves to rock music (37.6 years), to author's songs (51.4 years), and to playing wind instruments (59.0 years) had shorter lives than other females. Females are far ahead of males in the relative number of oldest old persons (90+ years). The first five places are occupied by harpists (43.75%), conductors (33.33%), architects (29.17%), violinists and cellists (20%), and sculptors (18.99%). The top five positions among oldest old persons for males involve Nobel laureates (16.67%), conductors (12.12%), members of the RAS (7.51%), violinists (7.44%), and scientists (7.0%). The centenary line was crossed by 8.33% of the female academics and architects, 6.25% of the harpists, and 4.22% of the poets who wrote prose. Among men, the proportion of centenarians was smaller: pianists, 0.76%; scientists, 0.45%; and violinists, 0.42%. These data confirm the view that high intelligence and education directly correlate with long life span and longevity. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Bazhanova E.D.,RAS Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry | Anisimov V.N.,Petrov Research Institute of Oncology
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2016

For the firsts time, the involvement of the STAT pathway in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis in physiological aging and in old mice overexpressing the HER-2/neu oncogene was studied. We showed that suppression of STAT3, STAT5, and STAT6 and overexpression of the proapoptotic factor STAT1, which provides p53-mediated apoptosis, are the causes for increasing the number of apoptotic neurons in physiological aging. HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor overexpression promotes neuronal survival through activation of STAT-signaling pathway with simultaneous suppression of the proapoptotic factor STAT1. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Mikhaleva I.I.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Prudchenko I.A.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Ivanov V.T.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Voitenkov V.B.,Petrov Research Institute of Oncology
Peptides | Year: 2011

Delta sleep inducing peptide (WAGGDASGE, DSIP) is a well known multifunctional regulatory peptide. Numerous studies have confirmed its stress-protective and adaptive activity which is independent of the origin or nature of the stress or other harmful factors. However, the biosynthetic origin of DSIP remains obscure, since nothing is known of its protein precursor(s) and their encoding gene(s). We have performed a comprehensive analysis of available gene and protein databases for homologous peptide sites within mammalian resources including man. A family of Jumonji C (JmjC)-domain-containing histone demethylases was shown to contain a sequence fragment closely homologous to DSIP. One type of these ubiquitous and phylogenetically ancient proteins encoded by JMJD1B gene includes the WKGGNASGE sequence that differs from DSIP by only 2 amino acid residues in positions 2 and 5. The respective peptide was synthesized and its biological effects were evaluated in a preliminary way in the forced swimming and antitoxic tests. We suggest that the histone demethylases of the JmjC-group containing DSIP-related region can be considered as possible protein precursors of endogenous peptides with DSIP-like activity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gianni L.,San Raffaele Institute | Dafni U.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Gelber R.D.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Azambuja E.,Free University of Colombia | And 20 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Treatment with adjuvant trastuzumab for 1 year improves disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. We aimed to assess disease-free survival and overall survival after a median follow-up of 4 years for patients enrolled on the Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial. Methods: The HERA trial is an international, multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial comparing treatment with trastuzumab for 1 and 2 years with observation after standard neoadjuvant, adjuvant chemotherapy, or both in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. After a positive first interim analysis at a median follow-up of 1 year for the comparison of treatment with trastuzumab for 1 year with observation, event-free patients in the observation group were allowed to cross over to receive trastuzumab. We report trial outcomes for the 1-year trastuzumab and observation groups at a median follow-up of 48·4 months (IQR 42·0-56·5) and assess the effect of the extensive crossover to trastuzumab. Our analysis was by intention-to-treat. The HERA trial is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2005-002385-11. Findings: The HERA trial population comprised 1698 patients randomly assigned to the observation group and 1703 to the 1-year trastuzumab group. Intention-to-treat analysis of disease-free survival showed a significant benefit in favour of patients in the 1-year trastuzumab group (4-year disease-free survival 78·6%) compared with the observation group (4-year disease-free survival 72·2%; hazard ratio [HR] 0·76; 95% CI 0·66-0·87; p<0·0001). Intention-to-treat analysis of overall survival showed no significant difference in the risk of death (4-year overall survival 89·3% vs 87·7%, respectively; HR 0·85; 95% CI 0·70-1·04; p=0·11). Overall, 885 patients (52%) of the 1698 patients in the observation group crossed over to receive trastuzumab, and began treatment at median 22·8 months (range 4·5-52·7) from randomisation. In a non-randomised comparison, patients in the selective-crossover cohort had fewer disease-free survival events than patients remaining in the observation group (adjusted HR 0·68; 95% CI 0·51-0·90; p=0·0077). Higher incidences of grade 3-4 and fatal adverse events were noted on 1-year trastuzumab than in the observation group. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events, each in less than 1% of patients, were congestive cardiac failure, hypertension, arthralgia, back pain, central-line infection, hot flush, headache, and diarrhoea. Interpretation: Treatment with adjuvant trastuzumab for 1 year after chemotherapy is associated with significant clinical benefit at 4-year median follow-up. The substantial selective crossover of patients in the observation group to trastuzumab was associated with improved outcomes for this cohort. Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche, Michelangelo Foundation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Berstein L.M.,Petrov Research Institute of Oncology
Advances in Gerontology | Year: 2011

When we speak of major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), we mean, in the first place, cardiovascular (ischemic heart disease, hypertension) and cerebrovascular (stroke) pathologies, malignant tumors, and chronic nonspecific respiratory (pneumonic) diseases and diabetes mellitus, ascribing to them, respectively, 25-30, 13.7 and 2% of the mortality that world statistics recorded in the early 2010s [91]. Guided by the core of the problem, but not by mortality rates [29], we should also class in the NCD group such diseases as osteoporosis, unipolar depression, and obesity [36]. According to the domestic statistical data on oncology (15, 16, 21) and the cancer registries of the United States [80], summary morbidity due to neoplasms of hormone-dependent tissues make up nearly 35-45% of all cancer-related cases. The last few decades were characterized by pronounced demographic changes and more insistent projections of a growing share of major noncommunicable diseases, including cancer [65, 79]. Therefore, attempts to understand the place of hormone-dependent malignant tumors among other human NCDs and analyze the interrelations between the former and the latter in their age-specific aspect are regarded as a vital task for contemporary oncoendocrinology. Although major human chronic diseases are mainly diagnosed in the second half of life, their hormone-metabolic base begins to form many decades before the clinical manifestations of the related pathological processes and does not always demonstrate an obvious picture of associations with individual diseases in this group. The latter may serve as an explanation for the absence of parallelism in the frequency of these diseases, in particular, in the final stage of ontogenesis. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011. Source

Discover hidden collaborations