Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry

Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Goncharov N.P.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Melikyan A.S.,Armenian National Agrarian University | Harutyunyan M.G.,Armenian National Agrarian University | Hovhannisyan M.T.,Armenian National Agrarian University | And 2 more authors.
Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research | Year: 2014

The results of an international expedition to the Republic of Armenia in the summer of 2013 are presented. An important result of the field work is the discovery of several wheat habitats Triticum araraticum Jakubz. and T. boeoticum Boiss. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Gavrilenko T.A.,Saint Petersburg State University | Pendinen G.I.,Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry | Rokka V.-M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Antonova O.Y.,Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry | Thieme R.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research | Year: 2015

The pairing of chromosomes in meiosis of unique allohaploid hybrids obtained using the methods of somatic hybridization, in vitro androgensis and chromosome engineering has been studied. Hybrids from two combinations were analyzed: (1) between cultivated potato S. tuberosum (dihaploid, 2n = 2x = 24, AA genome) and wild species S. etuberosum (2n = 2x = 24, EE genome) and (2) between cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum (2n = 2x = 24, LL) and wild species S. etuberosum (2n = 2x = 24, EE). Subsequent application of chromosome-specific BAC-clones of potato and probes of differentially labeled total DNA of the parental species allowed to identify chromosomes which were involved in pairing and to detect their genomic identity. Up to 7 intergenomic bivalents per cell were observed in allohaploids between S. tuberosum and S. etuberosum (AE); the chiasmata were distributed in the distal regions of the long arms of each chromosome and in the short arms of chromosomes 3, 6, 11, and 12. Androgenic regenerants of somatic hybrids S. lycopersicum with S. etuberosum are characterized mainly by univalent meiosis; rare bivalents (from 0 to 2 per cell) are formed by homeologs of chromosomes 4 and 6. The prospects of the proposed approach are discussed for the application of somatic hybridization, in vitro androgensis and chromosome engineering to study the potential of homeologs pairing and the strategy of introgressive hybridization of remote plant species. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Jones H.,NIAB | Gosman N.,NIAB | Horsnell R.,NIAB | Rose G.A.,NIAB | And 15 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Hexaploid bread wheat evolved from a rare hybridisation, which resulted in a loss of genetic diversity in the wheat D-genome with respect to the ancestral donor, Aegilops tauschii. Novel genetic variation can be introduced into modern wheat by recreating the above hybridisation; however, the information associated with the Ae. tauschii accessions in germplasm collections is limited, making rational selection of accessions into a re-synthesis programme difficult. We describe methodologies to identify novel diversity from Ae. tauschii accessions that combines Bayesian analysis of genotypic data, sub-species diversity and geographic information that summarises variation in climate and habitat at the collection point for each accession. Comparisons were made between diversity discovered amongst a panel of Ae. tauschii accessions, bread wheat varieties and lines from the CIMMYT synthetic hexaploid wheat programme. The selection of Ae. tauschii accessions based on differing approaches had significant effect on diversity within each set. Our results suggest that a strategy that combines several criteria will be most effective in maximising the sampled variation across multiple parameters. The analysis of multiple layers of variation in ex situ Ae. tauschii collections allows for an informed and rational approach to the inclusion of wild relatives into crop breeding programmes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

Sokolova E.,Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Pankin A.,Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Beketova M.,Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Kuznetsova M.,Institute of Phytopathology | And 4 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2011

New races of Phytophthora infestans rapidly defeat potato late blight (LB) resistance based on Solanum demissum germplasm, and breeders search for new sources of durable LB resistance. We developed and verified six sequence characterized amplified region markers recognizing the race-specific genes R1 and R3 of S. demissum and the broad-spectrum resistance gene RB of S. bulbocastanum and the germplasms of these species and used them to screen 209 accessions of 21 wild Solanum species. In addition to S. demissum, homologues of R1 and R3 were found in several species of series Demissa, Longipedicellata and diploid Tuberosa; R3 homologues were also detected in S. bulbocastanum, S. cardiophyllum and S. ehrenbergii. The RB homologues were found in a wider range of Solanum species. The markers of R1 and R3 genes reliably discerned between germplasms of S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum and wild sources of LB resistance. Following introgression, the species-specific markers of demissum and bulbocastanum germplasm were rapidly lost, whereas the markers of R1 and R3 genes lasted through several meiotic generations and were maintained at high frequencies in modern potato cultivars. The presence of these markers in demissoid potato cultivars was significantly associated with LB resistance, presuming that both genes contribute to overall defence response. © 2011 NIAB.

Potokina E.K.,Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry | Koshkin V.A.,Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry | Alekseeva E.A.,Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry | Matvienko I.I.,Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry | And 2 more authors.
Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research | Year: 2012

Combinations of the Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-D1 gene alleles were analyzed using allele-specific primers in 56 varieties and lines of common wheat that were selected in the Lukyanenko Agricultural Research Institute. The significant influence of the combination of these alleles on the time of the beginning of the heading of the studied varieties was determined, which is manifested differently under conditions of long and short photoperiods, as well as depending on whether vernalization occurs. Molecular labeling of wheat Vrn and Ppd gene alleles allows breeders to consciously manipulate the original material (by having information in advance about the adaptive potential of the plants that are involved in the breeding process), as well as to select the allele combinations that are optimal for specific conditions of cultivation. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Sadovaya A.S.,All Russia Institute of Plant Protection | Gultyaeva E.I.,All Russia Institute of Plant Protection | Mitrofanova O.P.,Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry | Shaidayuk E.L.,All Russia Institute of Plant Protection | And 2 more authors.
Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research | Year: 2015

Leaf rust resistance was estimated in 83 common wheat accessions carrying alien genetic material from the collection of the Vavilov Institute. Eight accessions with seedling resistance and 27 accessions with adult plant resistance were found. Analysis with molecular markers revealed genes highly and moderately efficient in Russia—Lr24, Lr39, Lr21, and Lr37—and a rye translocation 1AL.1RS. The accessions containing effective Lr genes are promising donors in Russian breeding programs. The lines raised with the use of T. timopheevii were heterogeneous for resistance. No molecular markers of the Lr50 gene known for this species were detected there. These lines demand further examination and selection. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Pomortsev A.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Martynov S.P.,Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry | Kovaleva O.N.,Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry | Lyalina E.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Journal of Genetics | Year: 2010

Polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F loci was analyzed in 84 accessions of local barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties from major agricultural regions of Afghanistan using starch gel electrophoresis. Forty alleles of the Hrd A locus with the frequencies from 0. 12 to 32. 73%, 62 alleles of the Hrd B locus with the frequencies from 0. 12 to 14. 29%, and five alleles of the Hrd F locus with the frequencies from 0. 59 to 32. 15% have been identified. The conclusion about genetic similarity of barley populations from different regions of Afghanistan is made on the basis of cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies in barley populations from 31 localities. The local barley populations form four unequal clusters. The largest cluster I includes populations from 14 localities of Afghanistan. The second largest cluster IV consists of populations from ten localities, and clusters II and III comprise populations from four and three localities, respectively. Each of the four clusters includes populations from different regions of northern and southern Afghanistan. Based on our results, we conclude that the diversity of hordein-coding loci and the distribution of their alleles among different regions of Afghanistan are the consequences of introduction of barley landraces and their distribution over trade routes. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Ali A.,Lund University | Ali A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Moushib L.I.,Lund University | Moushib L.I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2012

Phytophthora is the most devastating pathogen of dicot plants. There is a need for resistance sources with different modes of action to counteract the fast evolution of this pathogen. In order to better understand mechanisms of defense against P. infestans, we analyzed several clones of potato. Two of the genotypes tested, Sarpo Mira and SW93-1015, exhibited strong resistance against P. infestans in field trials, whole plant assays and detached leaf assays. The resistant genotypes developed different sizes of hypersensitive response (HR)-related lesions. HR lesions in SW93-1015 were restricted to very small areas, whereas those in Sarpo Mira were similar to those in Solanum demissum, the main source of classical resistance genes. SW93-1015 can be characterized as a cpr (constitutive expressor of PR genes) genotype without spontaneous microscopic or macroscopic HR lesions. This is indicated by constitutive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and PR1 (pathogenesis-related protein 1) secretion. SW93-1015 is one of the first plants identified as having classical protein-based induced defense expressed constitutively without any obvious metabolic costs or spontaneous cell death lesions. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.

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