Metta E.,Ifakara Health Institute |
Metta E.,University of Groningen |
Haisma H.,University of Groningen |
Kessy F.,Mzumbe University |
And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014
Background: Prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria with effective medicines remains necessary if malaria control goals are to be achieved. The theoretical concepts from self-care and the health belief model were used to examine the motivations for malaria self-care among the adult population. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted through eight focus group discussions with adult community members to explore their general opinions, views and perceptions of malaria and of its treatments. These groups were followed by 15 in-depth interviews of participants with a recent malaria experience to allow for an in-depth exploration of their self-care practices. The analysis followed principles of grounded theory and was conducted using Nvivo 9 qualitative data management software. Results: The self-treatment of malaria at home was found to be a common practice among the study participants. The majority of the participants practiced self-medication with a painkiller as an initial response. The persistence and the worsening of the disease symptoms prompted participants to consider other self-care options. Perceptions that many malaria symptoms are suggestive of other conditions motivated participants to self-refer for malaria test. The accessibility of private laboratory facilities and drug shops motivated their use for malaria tests and for obtaining anti-malarial medicines, respectively. Self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy was common, motivated by their perceived effectiveness and availability. The perceived barriers to using the recommended combination treatment, artemether- lumefantrine, were related to the possible side-effects and to uncertainty about their effectiveness, and these doubts motivated some participants to consider self-medication with local herbs. Several factors were mentioned as motivating people for self-care practices. These included poor patient provider relationship, unavailability of medicine and the costs associated with accessing treatments from the health facilities. Conclusions: Malaria self-care and self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy are common among adults, and are motivated by both individual characteristics and the limitations of the existing health care facilities. There is a need for public health interventions to take into account community perceptions and cultural schemas on malaria self-care practices. © 2014 Metta et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Afsarmanesh H.,University of Amsterdam |
Camarinha-Matos L.M.,New University of Lisbon |
Msanjila S.S.,Mzumbe University
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part C: Applications and Reviews | Year: 2011
Both research and practice have shown that preexistence of long-term associations/clusters of active and competitive organizations, the so-called virtual organizations breeding environments (VBEs), can greatly enhance dynamic creation of virtual organizations (VOs). During the past decade, a number of VBEs are formed worldwide, mostly among organizations located in a common region that, in principle, have common business culture and other similarities, and primarily focus on static lines of activities. The second-generation VBEs addressed in this paper; however, aim to focus on associations/clusters that are not bound to geographical regions or static lines of activities, and wish to act as well recognized and competitive entities in the society/market, facilitating time/cost effective and fluid configuration, and establishment of dynamic VOs. The proposed VBEs apply supporting information and communication technology infrastructures, tools, and services that provide common grounds for the interaction and cooperation among their member organizations. Furthermore, these multiregional VBEs assist with the needed evolution of VOs, introducing new approaches and mechanisms to build trust, define the needed collaboration business culture, and establish the common value systems and working/sharing principles among their independent organizations, among others. The paper introduces a number of models, methodologies, and tools that are designed and developed supporting both the management as well as successful operation of the second-generation VBEs. © 2010 IEEE.
Msanjila S.S.,Mzumbe University
International Journal of Applied Systemic Studies | Year: 2013
Trust is not a single concept that can uniformly be applied to all cases for trust-based decision-making and its measurement depends on actors' perception and thus can never be measured with the single criterion. Developing fact-based mechanisms for assessing the level of trust in organisations is amenable to large collaborative networks, in which some members do not know each other. This article presents a conceptual model in terms of mathematical equations for supporting trust analysis in organisations. The model, and thus its related mechanisms for assessing the level of trust in an organisation comprise trust criteria, known factors and intermediate factors. The paper also presents a model for assessing trustworthiness of organisations based on mathematical equations formulated applying systems engineering and system thinking concepts. It concludes by presenting the implementation and functionalities of a trust management system. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Msanjila S.S.,Mzumbe University |
Afsarmanesh H.,University of Amsterdam
Production Planning and Control | Year: 2011
The market is continuously evolving to match the pace of business transactions conducted in today's technically connected and digitalised world. Organisations need to be properly prepared to either individually or in collaboration with others match the market evolution, which is characterised by: the increasing intensity of competition on acquisition of opportunities, the demand for the large amount of resources and large number of different competencies, and the continuous increase scarcity of resources, among others. Collaborative networks of organisations have therefore manifested in the market addressing these challenges. Establishing fruitful collaboration is challenging and therefore a proper approach to mediate collaboration among organisations is needed to support resolving the emerging disputes during their interactions. Creating trust among organisations is a base requirement for them to quickly join their efforts in the dynamic formation of a goal-oriented collaborative network, in order to respond to market opportunities, and thus committing themselves to the established collaboration. But trust between two organisations dynamically evolves over time. This article addresses the aspects of modelling of evolution of trustworthiness of organisations as a way to raise the understanding of trust concept and applying these concepts to enhance and mediate collaboration among organisations. It also addresses the aspects related to different forms of trust models in organisations as well as characterisation of the life cycle of trust in organisations. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Maguya A.S.,Lappeenranta University of Technology |
Maguya A.S.,Mzumbe University |
Junttila V.,Lappeenranta University of Technology |
Kauranne T.,Lappeenranta University of Technology
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2013
Light Detection and Ranging (li. dar) has become a valuable tool in forest inventory because it yields accurate measurements of tree heights. However, tree height can be accurate only if the height of the ground, i. e., the Digital Terrain Model (dtm) is first accurately established.Although great advances have been made in li. dar technology over the past decade, filtering li. dar data for Digital Terrain Model (dtm) interpolation is still a challenge, especially in steep and complex terrain with forest cover. Several algorithms proposed in the literature address this challenge but their performance deteriorates with the decreasing point density caused by the presence of forest cover and steep slopes. In this paper, we propose a new adaptive algorithm for dtm interpolation from li. dar data in steep terrain with forest cover. The algorithm partitions the input data and estimates a section of the dtm by fitting a linear or quadratic trend surface, or uses cubic spline interpolation depending on the complexity of the section of terrain. The performance of the algorithm is tested in three ways: by visual assessment, by comparison of the tree-height estimates produced using the generated dtm with those obtained using field survey, and by use of International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (isprs) test data. Test results show that the algorithm can cope well with steep slopes and low li. dar point densities, giving a more accurate estimate of average tree height compared to conventional algorithms. The algorithm can be used for dtm extraction in large scale forest inventory projects in challenging environments-complex terrain and low li. dar point densities. © 2013 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).
Mushi L.,Mzumbe University |
Marschall P.,University of Greifswald |
Flessa S.,University of Greifswald
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2015
Background: The cost of dialysis in low and middle-Income countries has not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this article is to systematically review peer-reviewed articles on the cost of dialysis across low and middle-income countries. Methods: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for the year 1998 to March 2013, and additional studies were added from Google Scholar search. An article was included if two reviewers agreed that it had reported cost of dialysis from low and middle-Income countries. Results: The annual cost per patient for hemodialysis (HD) ranged from Int$ 3,424 to Int$ 42,785, and peritoneal dialysis (PD) ranged from Int$ 7,974 to Int$ 47,971. Direct medical cost especially drugs and consumables for HD and dialysis solutions and tubing for PD were the main cost drivers. Conclusion: The number of studies on the economics of dialysis in low and middle-income countries is limited. Few papers indicate that dialysis is an expensive form of treatment for the population of these countries and that the poorer countries have an over-proportional burden to finance dialysis services. Further research is needed to determine the cost of dialysis based on a standard methodology grounded on existing economic guidelines and to address the question whether dialysis should be an element of the essential package of health in resource-poor countries. Used data should be as complete as possible. In case of missing data, proxies can be used. In case of developing countries, expert interviews are often used for estimating missing information. © 2015 Mushi et al.
Msanjila S.S.,Mzumbe University
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering | Year: 2012
The initiatives to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS across African society have been following different approaches ranging from workshops and seminars to posters across streets. One of the main challenges has been on the dissemination of relevant information related to HIV/AIDS advices to the appropriate in demand users. However, the advances in ICT have not been benefited in this area and particularly in developing economy countries. This paper first provides an understanding of needs and challenges for developing an online infrastructure (Collaborative Infrastructure for HIV/AIDS Advisory Services - CIHAAS system) that can facilitate the provision of HIV/AIDS advisory services to youths. It also addresses requirement identification, specification of services and functionalities of the proposed ICT infrastructure, and finally, it presents architectural design of the proposed system. © 2012 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.
Siyao P.O.,Mzumbe University
Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries | Year: 2012
This paper aims at investigating the Barriers in Accessing Agricultural Information in Tanzania with a Gender Perspective: The Case Study of Small-Scale Sugar Cane Growers in Kilombero District. The study was carried out in three purposefully selected villages and five institutions in Kilombero District, Morogoro Region. The study used a sample size of 83 respondents. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used. Data were collected by using documentary review, interviews through structured questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, focus group discussions and personal observations. Quantitative data were analysed by using SPSS and Microsoft Excel Spread Sheet, while qualitative data were analysed using content analysis procedure. The results of the study revealed that lack of access to the current, relevant and appropriate agricultural information in the rural areas has led to the stagnation of growth of sugar cane produced by small-scale growers. The study findings also revealed that the barriers to accessing agricultural information in the study area are associated with the lack of means and facilities by which information can be easily accessed. It is therefore recommended that means and facilities by which growers can access agricultural information are put in place, rural women empowerment and involvement in the decision-making process at all stages, and the provision of agricultural information to rural farmers should be gender sensitive.
Rasheli G.A.,Mzumbe University
International Journal of Public Sector Management | Year: 2016
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the transaction costs involved in managing procurement contracts in the public sector, particularly at the lower and higher level of local governments from the clients’ perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses new institutional economics, specifically the transaction cost approach. A multiple case study design was used, in which five local government authorities (LGAs) were selected from the Kigoma and Tanga regions of Tanzania. Interviews with heads of procurement management units, focus groups and secondary sources were used to collect information for lower level LGAs. Findings: Very high information, negotiation and monitoring transaction costs were revealed at the post-contractual stage for higher levels of local government in all cases. Transaction costs were associated with institutional problems, lack of financial resources and attitudes towards accountability, transparency and competition. It was also found that lower levels of local government are faced with very high transaction costs for all procurement stages due to a lack of procurement contract management capacity among ward and village procurement project committees, low levels of support from higher level LGAs, a lack of simple Swahili-standardised documents and guidelines for lower level procurement contract management which reflect current legal issues and the lack of a legal framework for procurement at the lower level of local government. These costs are associated with poor accountability and a lack of competition, transparency and efficiency throughout public procurement chains. Research limitations/implications: There is no estimate for quantitative approaches, because it is was difficult to measure transaction costs associated with accountability, transparency and efficiency. Originality/value: The paper contributes knowledge on qualitative levels of transaction costs for procurement contract management for both higher and lower levels of LGAs from the clients’ viewpoint. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 311.26K | Year: 2014
This research is exploring practical ways in which citizens in low income countries can hold their local leaders to account for their performance in delivering basic services and in reducing poverty. In recent years there have been great efforts to decentralise the delivery of services and political power to the local level. The assumption behind this being that this would make service delivery more responsive to local needs. In reality this has sometimes led to local leaders and richer people being able to take control of resources and services. There has been some research that shows that when local people, and particularly those from poorer and more marginalised groups, have access to information about their rights and the performance of local government and other service delivery agencies then they are better able to demand improvements and fairness in accessing services. They are also better able to challenge corrupt practices. There has also been some helpful recent work in using national level data on government performance in order to hold national governments to account. Some of these include the Mo Ibrahim Governance Index, World Governance Indicators, Open Budget Index and Afrobarometer. This project, the idea for which comes from an important civil society activist organisation in Tanzania, proposes to adapt the ideas from these national indices to the local level. This project, which involves a partnership between a Tanzanian University, The Foundation for Civil Society in Tanzania and the International NGO Research And Training Centre (INTRAC), Oxford, will use a participatory process in 3 local government areas in Tanzania to create a locally meaningful governance index. The project will then pilot and test this index as a tool for citizen engagement and improvement in local service delivery and governance performance over a period of 3 years. The project will use a range of traditional and social media and public events to publicise the results from the index and enable citizens to engage with local leaders. However, it will not apply the same publicity tools in all areas in order to assess the impact of these tools. The project is interested in how the index might contribute to public dialogue and political change. It will be exploring the extent to which a local index can provide a tool to produce better access to local services and reductions in poverty. It is expected that the results of this research will benefit academic researchers and civil society actors working on the reduction of poverty in low income countries. It will also be of practical interest to national and local governments seeking to improve their performance in reducing poverty, as well as other organisations working on this issue.