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Saranac Lake, NY, United States

Khan M.U.,KCAS Inc | Bowsher R.R.,B2S Consulting | Cameron M.,LUMIGEN | Devanarayan V.,Abbvie Inc. | And 9 more authors.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2015

Increasingly, commercial immunoassay kits are used to support drug discovery and development. Longitudinally consistent kit performance is crucial, but the degree to which kits and reagents are characterized by manufacturers is not standardized, nor are the approaches by users to adapt them and evaluate their performance through validation prior to use. These factors can negatively impact data quality. This paper offers a systematic approach to assessment, method adaptation and validation of commercial immunoassay kits for quantification of biomarkers in drug development, expanding upon previous publications and guidance. These recommendations aim to standardize and harmonize user practices, contributing to reliable biomarker data from commercial immunoassays, thus, enabling properly informed decisions during drug development. © 2015 Future Science Ltd. Source


Kobayashi D.T.,Spinal USA | Shi J.,Walker Bioscience | Stephen L.,Myriad RBM | Ballard K.L.,Myriad RBM | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objectives: Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) presents challenges in (i) monitoring disease activity and predicting progression, (ii) designing trials that allow rapid assessment of candidate therapies, and (iii) understanding molecular causes and consequences of the disease. Validated biomarkers of SMA motor and non-motor function would offer utility in addressing these challenges. Our objectives were (i) to discover additional markers from the Biomarkers for SMA (BforSMA) study using an immunoassay platform, and (ii) to validate the putative biomarkers in an independent cohort of SMA patients collected from a multi-site natural history study (NHS). Methods: BforSMA study plasma samples (N = 129) were analyzed by immunoassay to identify new analytes correlating to SMA motor function. These immunoassays included the strongest candidate biomarkers identified previously by chromatography. We selected 35 biomarkers to validate in an independent cohort SMA type 1, 2, and 3 samples (N = 158) from an SMA NHS. The putative biomarkers were tested for association to multiple motor scales and to pulmonary function, neurophysiology, strength, and quality of life measures. We implemented a Tobit model to predict SMA motor function scores. Results: 12 of the 35 putative SMA biomarkers were significantly associated (p<0.05) with motor function, with a 13th analyte being nearly significant. Several other analytes associated with non-motor SMA outcome measures. From these 35 biomarkers, 27 analytes were selected for inclusion in a commercial panel (SMA-MAP) for association with motor and other functional measures. Conclusions: Discovery and validation using independent cohorts yielded a set of SMA biomarkers significantly associated with motor function and other measures of SMA disease activity. A commercial SMA-MAP biomarker panel was generated for further testing in other SMA collections and interventional trials. Future work includes evaluating the panel in other neuromuscular diseases, for pharmacodynamic responsiveness to experimental SMA therapies, and for predicting functional changes over time in SMA patients. © 2013 Kobayashi et al. Source


Srivastava A.K.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | Jaganathan S.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | Stephen L.,Myriad RBM | Hollingshead M.G.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | And 12 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2016

Purpose: To support clinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of the Smac mimetic TL32711 (birinapant) and other apoptosistargeting drugs, we describe the development, validation, and application of novel immunoassays for 15 cytosolic and membrane- associated proteins indicative of the induction, onset, and commitment to apoptosis in human tumors. Experimental Design: The multiplex immunoassays were constructed on the Luminex platform with apoptosis biomarkers grouped into three panels. Panel 1 contains Bak, Bax, total caspase-3, total lamin-B (intact and 45 kDa fragment), and Smac; panel 2 contains Bad, Bax-Bcl-2 heterodimer, Bcl-xL, Bim, and Mcl1; and panel 3 contains active (cleaved) caspase-3, Bcl-xL-Bak heterodimer, Mcl1-Bak heterodimer, pS99-Bad, and survivin. Antibody specificity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Results: Two laboratories analytically validated the multiplex immunoassays for application with core-needle biopsy samples processed to control preanalytical variables; the biologic variability for each biomarker was estimated from xenograft measurements. Studies of TL32711 in xenograft models confirmed a dosedependent increase in activated caspase-3 6 hours after dosing and provided assay fit-for-purpose confirmation. Coincident changes in cytosolic lamin-B and subsequent changes in Bcl-xL provided correlative evidence of caspase-3 activation. The validated assay is suitable for use with clinical specimens; 14 of 15 biomarkers were quantifiable in patient core-needle biopsies. Conclusions: The validated multiplex immunoassays developed for this study provided proof of mechanism data for TL32711 and are suitable for quantifying apoptotic biomarkers in clinical trials. © 2015 AACR. Source

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