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Moulik M.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Breinholt J.P.,Indiana University | Dreyer W.J.,Baylor College of Medicine | Kearney D.L.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2010

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the outcome and prevalence of viral endomyocardial infection after cardiac transplantation. Background: Viral myocardial infection causes heart failure, but its role after cardiac transplantation is unclear. We hypothesized that viral infection of the cardiac allograft reduces graft survival. Methods: Between June 1999 and November 2004, 94 pediatric cardiac transplant patients were screened for the presence of viral genome in serial endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Graft loss, advanced transplant coronary artery disease (TCAD), and acute rejection (AR) were compared in the PCR-positive (n = 37) and PCR-negative (n = 57) groups, using time-dependent Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. From November 2002 to November 2004, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) was administered to patients with PCR-positive EMBs. The outcomes of the IVIG-treated, PCR-positive patients (n = 20) were compared with IVIG-untreated, PCR-positive patients (n = 17). Results: Viral genomes were detected in EMBs from 37 (39%) patients; parvovirus B19, adenovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were the most common. The PCR-positive group (n = 37, 25% graft loss at 2.4 years) had decreased graft survival (p < 0.001) compared with the PCR-negative group (n = 57, 25% graft loss at 8.7 years) and developed advanced TCAD prematurely (p = 0.001). The number of AR episodes was similar in both groups. On multivariate analysis, presence of viral genome was an independent risk factor for graft loss (relative risk: 4.2, p = 0.015). The time to advanced TCAD after becoming PCR-positive was longer in the IVIG-treated patients (p = 0.03) with a trend toward improved graft survival (p = 0.06). Conclusions: Viral endomyocardial infection is an independent predictor of graft loss in pediatric cardiac transplant recipients. This effect appears to be mediated through premature development of advanced TCAD. IVIG therapy in this subgroup may improve survival and merits further investigation. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


Tang H.-Y.,Baylor College of Medicine | Fang P.,Baylor College of Medicine | Lin J.W.,Baylor College of Medicine | Darilek S.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 6 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2015

Objectives: Aetiological assessment of 71 probands whose clinical presentation suggested a genetic syndrome or auditory neuropathy. Methods: Sanger sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from peripheral blood or lymphoblastoid cell lines. Genes were selected for sequencing based on each patient's clinical presentation and suspected diagnosis. Observed DNA sequence variations were assessed for pathogenicity by review of the scientific literature, and mutation and polymorphism databases, through the use of in silico tools including sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) and polymorphism phenotyping (PolyPhen), and according to the recommendations of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics for the interpretation of DNA sequence variations. Novel DNA sequence variations were sought in controls. Results: DNA sequencing of the coding and nearcoding regions of genes relevant to each patient's clinical presentation revealed 37 sequence variations of known or uncertain pathogenicity in 9 genes from 25 patients. 14 novel sequence variations were discovered. Assessment of phenotypes revealed notable findings in 9 patients. Conclusions: DNA sequencing in patients whose clinical presentation suggested a genetic syndrome or auditory neuropathy provided opportunities for aetiological assessment and more precise genetic counselling of patients and families. The failure to identify a genetic aetiology in many patients in this study highlights the extreme heterogeneity of genetic hearing loss, the incompleteness of current knowledge of aetiologies of hearing loss, and the limitations of conventional DNA sequencing strategies that evaluate only coding and near-coding segments of genes. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source


Isakoff S.J.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Isakoff S.J.,Harvard University | Mayer E.L.,Harvard University | Mayer E.L.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 27 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015

Purpose: The identification of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) who are expected to benefit from platinum-based chemotherapy is of interest. We conducted a single-arm phase II clinical trial of single-agent platinum for mTNBC with biomarker correlates. Patients and Methods: Patients with mTNBC received first- or second-line cisplatin (75 mg/m2) or carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve 6) by physician's choice once every 3 weeks. Coprimary end points were objective response rate (RR) and response prediction by p63/p73 gene expression. Secondary and exploratory end points included toxicity assessment, RR in cisplatin versus carboplatin, and RR in molecularly defined subgroups, including BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Results: Patients (N = 86; 69 as first-line therapy) received cisplatin (n = 43) or carboplatin (n = 43). RR was 25.6% (95% CI, 16.8% to 36%) and was numerically higher with cisplatin (32.6%) than with carboplatin (18.7%). RR was 54.5% in patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations (n = 11). In patients without BRCA1/2 mutations (n = 66), exploratory analyses showed that a BRCA-like genomic instability signature (n = 32) discriminated responding and nonresponding tumors (mean homologous recombination deficiency-loss of heterozygosity/homologous recombination deficiency-large-scale state transitions [HRD-LOH/HRD-LST] scores were 12.68 and 5.11, respectively), whereas predefined analysis by p63/p73 expression status (n = 61), p53 and PIK3CA mutation status (n = 53), or PAM50 gene expression subtype (n = 55) did not. Five of the six long-term responders alive at a median of 4.5 years lacked germline BRCA1/2 mutations, and two of them had increased tumor HRD-LOH/HRD-LST scores. Conclusion: Platinum agents are active in mTNBC, especially in patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. A measure of tumor DNA repair function may identify patients without mutations who could benefit from platinum therapy agents. Prospective controlled confirmatory trials are warranted. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Sun M.,University of South Florida | Connizzo B.K.,University of Pennsylvania | Adams S.M.,University of South Florida | Freedman B.R.,University of Pennsylvania | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2015

Collagen V mutations underlie classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and joint hypermobility is an important clinical manifestation. We define the function of collagen V in tendons and ligaments, as well as the role of alterations in collagen V expression in the pathobiology in classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A conditional Col5a1flox/flox mouse model was bred with Scleraxis-Cre mice to create a targeted tendon and ligament Col5a1-null mouse model, Col5a1Δten/Δten. Targeting was specific, resulting in collagen V-null tendons and ligaments. Col5a1Δten/Δten mice demonstrated decreased body size, grip weakness, abnormal gait, joint laxity, and early-onset osteoarthritis. These gross changes were associated with abnormal fiber organization, as well as altered collagen fibril structure with increased fibril diameters and decreased fibril number that was more severe in a major joint stabilizing ligament, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), than in the flexor digitorum longus tendon. The ACL also had a higher collagen V content than did the flexor digitorum longus tendon. The collagen V-null ACL and flexor digitorum longus tendon both had significant alterations in mechanical properties, with ACL exhibiting more severe changes. The data demonstrate critical differential regulatory roles for collagen V in tendon and ligament structure and function and suggest that collagen V regulatory dysfunction is associated with an abnormal joint phenotype, similar to the hypermobility phenotype in classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Source


Boac B.M.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Xiong Y.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Marchion D.C.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Abbasi F.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | And 14 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2016

Objectives Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is the leading cause of mortality among women with gynecologic malignancy, in part due to the development of chemoresistance. We sought to identify micro-RNAs (miRNAs) associated with in vitro development of OVCA chemoresistance that may also represent potential targets for therapy. Methods In this study, four OVCA cell lines (A2780CP, A2780S, IGROV1, and OVCAR5) were serially treated with cisplatin in parallel with measurements of miRNA expression changes. Results Nine miRNAs were found to be associated with increasing cisplatin resistance (IC50) (p < 0.01); however, only 5 of these miRNAs have publically available information. Pathway analysis identified 15 molecular signaling pathways that were represented by genes predicted to be targets of the 5 miRNAs (false discovery rate < 0.05), 11 of which are associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further analysis identified 2 of those pathways as being associated with overall survival in 218 patients with OVCA. Conclusions Collectively, this panel of miRNAs associated with in vitro evolution of OVCA cisplatin resistance and the pathways identified to be associated with EMT and overall patient survival provide a framework for further investigations into EMT as a therapeutic target in patients with OVCA. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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