Serra C.,Boston University |
Bhasin S.,Boston University |
Tangherlini F.,Boston University |
Barton E.R.,University of Pennsylvania |
And 7 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2011
Testosterone (T) supplementation increases skeletal muscle mass, circulating GH, IGF-I, and im IGF-I expression, but the role of GH and IGF-I in mediating T's effects on the skeletal muscle remains poorly understood. Here, we show that T administration increased body weight and the mass of the androgen-dependent levator ani muscle in hypophysectomized as well as castrated plus hypophysectomized adult male rats. T stimulated the proliferation of primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSKMCs) in vitro, an effect blocked by transfecting hSKMCs with small interference RNA targeting human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). In differentiation conditions, T promoted the fusion of hSKMCs into larger myotubes, an effect attenuated by small interference RNA targeting human IGF-IR. Notably,MKRmice, which express a dominant negative form of the IGF-IR in skeletal muscle fibers, treated with a GnRH antagonist (acyline) to suppress endogenous T, responded to T administration by an attenuated increase in the levator ani muscle mass. In conclusion, circulatingGH and IGF-I are not essential for mediating T's effects on an androgen-responsive skeletal muscle. IGF-I signaling plays an important role in mediating T's effects on skeletal muscle progenitor cell growth and differentiation in vitro. However, IGF-IR signaling in skeletal muscle fibers does not appear to be obligatory for mediating the anabolic effects of Tonthe mass of androgen-responsive skeletal muscles in mice. Copyright © 2010 The Endocrine Society. All rights reserved.
Borselli C.,Harvard University |
Borselli C.,University of Naples Federico II |
Cezar C.A.,Harvard University |
Shvartsman D.,Harvard University |
And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011
Many cell types of therapeutic interest, including myoblasts, exhibit reduced engraftment if cultured prior to transplantation. This study investigated whether polymeric scaffolds that direct cultured myoblasts to migrate outwards and repopulate the host damaged tissue, in concert with release of angiogenic factors designed to enhance revascularizaton of the regenerating tissue, would enhance the efficacy of this cell therapy and lead to functional muscle regeneration. This was investigated in the context of a severe injury to skeletal muscle tissue involving both myotoxin-mediated direct damage and induction of regional ischemia. Local and sustained release of VEGF and IGF-1 from macroporous scaffolds used to transplant and disperse cultured myogenic cells significantly enhanced their engraftment, limited fibrosis, and accelerated the regenerative process. This resulted in increased muscle mass and, improved contractile function. These results demonstrate the importance of finely controlling the microenvironment of transplanted cells in the treatment of severe muscle damage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Wang L.,Brown University |
Wang L.,Harvard University |
Shansky J.,Myomics Inc. |
Borselli C.,Harvard University |
And 3 more authors.
Tissue Engineering - Part A | Year: 2012
The successful use of transplanted cells and/or growth factors for tissue repair is limited by a significant cell loss and/or rapid growth factor diffusion soon after implantation. Highly porous alginate scaffolds formed with covalent crosslinking have been used to improve cell survival and growth factor release kinetics, but require open-wound surgical procedures for insertion and have not previously been designed to readily degrade in vivo. In this study, a biodegradable, partially crosslinked alginate scaffold with shape-memory properties was fabricated for minimally invasive surgical applications. A mixture of high and low molecular weight partially oxidized alginate modified with RGD peptides was covalently crosslinked using carbodiimide chemistry. The scaffold was compressible 11-fold and returned to its original shape when rehydrated. Scaffold degradation properties in vitro indicated ∼85% mass loss by 28 days. The greater than 90% porous scaffolds released the recombinant growth factor insulin-like growth factor-1 over several days in vitro and allowed skeletal muscle cell survival, proliferation, and migration from the scaffold over a 28-day period. The compressible scaffold thus has the potential to be delivered by a minimally invasive technique, and when rehydrated in vivo with cells and/or growth factors, could serve as a temporary delivery vehicle for tissue repair. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Lee P.H.U.,The Miriam Hospital |
Lee P.H.U.,Stanford University |
Vandenburgh H.H.,The Miriam Hospital |
Vandenburgh H.H.,Myomics Inc.
Tissue Engineering - Part A | Year: 2013
Skeletal muscle atrophy has been well characterized in various animal models, and while certain pathways that lead to disuse atrophy and its associated functional deficits have been well studied, available drugs to counteract these deficiencies are limited. An ex vivo tissue-engineered skeletal muscle offers a unique opportunity to study skeletal muscle physiology in a controlled in vitro setting. Primary mouse myoblasts isolated from adult muscle were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) containing hundreds of aligned postmitotic muscle fibers expressing sarcomeric proteins. When electrically stimulated, BAMs generated measureable active forces within 2-3 days of formation. The maximum isometric tetanic force (Po) increased for ∼3 weeks to 2587±502 μN/BAM and was maintained at this level for greater than 80 days. When BAMs were reduced in length by 25% to 50%, muscle atrophy occurred in as little as 6 days. Length reduction resulted in significant decreases in Po (50.4%), mean myofiber cross-sectional area (21.7%), total protein synthesis rate (22.0%), and noncollagenous protein content (6.9%). No significant changes occurred in either the total metabolic activity or protein degradation rates. This study is the first in vitro demonstration that length reduction alone can induce skeletal muscle atrophy, and establishes a novel in vitro model for the study of skeletal muscle atrophy. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Vandenburgh H.,The Miriam Hospital |
Vandenburgh H.,Myomics Inc.
Tissue Engineering - Part B: Reviews | Year: 2010
Tissue engineering for in vitro drug-screening applications based on tissue function is an active area of translational research. Compared to targeted high-throughput drug-screening methods that rapidly analyze hundreds of thousands of compounds affecting a single biochemical reaction or gene expression, high-content screening (HCS) with engineered tissues is more complex and based on the cumulative positive and negative effects of a compound on the multiple pathways altering tissue function. It may therefore serve as better predictor of in vivo activity and serve as a bridge between high-throughput drug screening and in vivo animal studies. In the case of the musculoskeletal system, tissue function includes determining improvements in the mechanical properties of bone, tendon, cartilage, and, for skeletal muscle, contractile properties such as rate of contraction/relaxation, force generation, fatigability, and recovery from fatigue. HCS of compound banks with engineered tissues requires miniature musculoskeletal organs as well as automated functional testing. The resulting technologies should be rapid, cost effective, and reduce the number of small animals required for follow-on in vivo studies. Identification of compounds that improve the repair/regeneration of damaged tissues in vivo would have extensive clinical applications for treating musculoskeletal disorders. © Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.