Myko Technology Private Ltd

Goa, India

Myko Technology Private Ltd

Goa, India
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Kunwar A.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Adhikary B.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Jayakumar S.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Barik A.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2012

The radioprotective effect of extracellular melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, isolated from the fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex was examined in BALB/C mice, and the probable mechanism of action was established. At an effective dose of 50. mg/kg body weight, melanin exhibited both prophylactic and mitigative activities, increasing the 30-day survival of mice by 100% and 60%, respectively, after exposure to radiation (7. Gy, whole body irradiation (WBI)). The protective activity of melanin was primarily due to inhibition of radiation-induced hematopoietic damages as evidenced by improvement in spleen parameters such as index, total cellularity, endogenous colony forming units, and maintenance of circulatory white blood cells and platelet counts. Melanin also reversed the radiation-induced decrease in ERK phosphorylation in splenic tissue, which may be the key feature in its radioprotective action. Additionally, our results indicated that the sustained activation of AKT, JNK and P38 proteins in splenic tissue of melanin pre-treated group may also play a secondary role. This was also supported by the fact that melanin could prevent apoptosis in splenic tissue by decreasing BAX/Bcl-XL ratio, and increasing the expressions of the proliferation markers (PCNA and Cyclin D1), compared to the radiation control group. Melanin also reduced the oxidative stress in hepatic tissue and abrogated immune imbalance by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL6 and TNFα). In conclusion, our results confirmed that fungal melanin is a very effective radioprotector against WBI and the probable mechanisms of radioprotection are due to modulation in pro-survival (ERK) signaling, prevention of oxidative stress and immunomodulation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Jalmi P.,Myko Technology Private Ltd | Bodke P.,Myko Technology Private Ltd | Wahidullah S.,National Institute of Oceanography of India | Raghukumar S.,Myko Technology Private Ltd
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Melanins are commonly produced by bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, where they play a role in many biological functions. They protect organisms against UV and ionizing radiations. Their potential applications in biotechnological industries such as cosmetics and paints, where UV protection is required, are hampered by the lack of suitable organisms or methods to produce them abundantly. We report here the production of high amounts of extracellular melanin by the fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex in cultures supplemented with tyrosine. Their typical UV-absorbance, as well as i. r., 13C solid-state and 1H NMR spectra indicated that the melanin is a eumelanin, being a copolymer of dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid and dihydroxyindole, associated with some carbohydrates and proteinaceous matter. Optimal culture conditions established by a Plackett-Burman experiment, followed by a full factorial experiment based on tyrosine and peptone yielded a maximum of up to 6. 6 g melanin l-1. The high yields of extracellular melanin from G. simplex enables its use in biotechnology. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kanchana R.,Goa University | Muraleedharan U.D.,Goa University | Raghukumar S.,Myko Technology Private Ltd
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Two thraustochytrid protists of the genus Thraustochytrium isolated from coastal and mangrove habitats of Goa, India were studied for extracellular alkaline lipase production. Maximum lipase production was supported by a combination of peptone and yeast extract in the growth medium while strong inhibition of enzyme production was observed in presence of glucose. The inducible nature of the enzyme production was evidenced by the requirement of olive oil in the medium. Lipase production was salt-dependent and optimum production required 3.4% (w/v) crude sea salt. Ideal conditions for maximum production of lipases were therefore adopted as incubation at 30 ± 2°C for 168 h at an initial pH of 6.0 in a medium consisting of 0.5% peptone, 0.01% yeast extract, 0.5% olive oil and 3.4% crude salt. Extracellular lipase production by the two thraustochytrid isolates [designated TZ (ATCC #PRA-295) and AH-2 (ATCC #PRA-296)] was increased threefold under these optimized culture conditions. This appears to be the first report on optimization of cultivation conditions for the production of alkaline lipases by thraustochytrids. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Raghukumar S.,Myko Technology Private Ltd
Indian Journal of Marine Sciences | Year: 2011

Marine biotechnology may be viewed from the perspective of three issues, namely components, levels of research and the players or researchers. (1) The three components are organisms, applications and processes. Access to known organisms and the discovery of unique ones are basic requirements. Sustainable harvesting is the key for accessing marine invertebrates. An alternative is the development of cell culture methods and ecosystem conservation. Establishment of microbial culture collections of organisms difficult to access or cultivate, such as deep-sea and anaerobic microbes, obligate marine fungi and phytoplankton is an important facilitator. Extremophilic organisms from the deep-sea and cold environments are useful candidates for novel applications. Genomics and metagenomics are emerging as powerful tools in discovering useful genes. Application of organisms constitutes the second component of biotechnology. A search for candidate organisms for applications should be based on intelligent screening, while innovative applications of unique properties of organisms need to be established. The former is exemplified by novel drugs from coral reef invertebrates, marine polysaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Adhesive proteins of molluscs, biomimetics and nanolevel cell wall organization in diatoms are examples of intelligent applications. Process development and improvement for new and existing technologies are the final determinants of a technology. (2) The three levels are established, emerging and exploratory technologies. It is important to recognize this in order to decide who does what. (3) The key players are the academia and industries. Participation and collaboration of the two must be viewed in light of different levels of biotechnology. Improvement of established technologies belongs more to the realm of industries. Emerging technologies offer the best platform for their collaboration, while exploratory technologies are the domain of academic institutions.


Patent
MYKO Technology PRIVATE Ltd | Date: 2013-09-17

This invention discloses a process of production of antiviral polysaccharides derived from extracellular culture filtrate of tharaustaochytrids, belonging to the marine protistan group of Labyrinthulomycetes. The antiviral polysaccharide shows a broad-spectrum antiviral activity, being active against viruses such as the enterovirus, retrovirus, adenovirus and cytomegalovirus.


PubMed | Myko Technology Private Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: World journal of microbiology & biotechnology | Year: 2012

Melanins are commonly produced by bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, where they play a role in many biological functions. They protect organisms against UV and ionizing radiations. Their potential applications in biotechnological industries such as cosmetics and paints, where UV protection is required, are hampered by the lack of suitable organisms or methods to produce them abundantly. We report here the production of high amounts of extracellular melanin by the fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex in cultures supplemented with tyrosine. Their typical UV-absorbance, as well as i.r., (13)C solid-state and (1)H NMR spectra indicated that the melanin is a eumelanin, being a copolymer of dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid and dihydroxyindole, associated with some carbohydrates and proteinaceous matter. Optimal culture conditions established by a Plackett-Burman experiment, followed by a full factorial experiment based on tyrosine and peptone yielded a maximum of up to 6.6gmelaninl(-1). The high yields of extracellular melanin from G. simplex enables its use in biotechnology.

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