MyGenostics Inc.

Baltimore, MD, United States

MyGenostics Inc.

Baltimore, MD, United States

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Zhu Y.,Peking University | Tian T.,Peking University | Li Z.,Peking University | Tang Z.,BeiGene Beijing Co. | And 8 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2015

The patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) model has become the most realistic model for preclinical studies. PDTX models of gastric cancer using surgical tissues are reported occasionally; however, the PDTX models using gastroscopic biopsies, which are best for evaluating new drugs, are unreported. In our study, a total of 185 fresh gastroscopic biopsies of gastric cancer were subcutaneously transplanted into NOD/SCID (Nonobese Diabetic/Severe Combined Immunodeficiency) mice. Sixty-three PDTX models were successfully established (34.1%, 63/185) and passaged to maintain tumors in vivo, and the mean latency period of xenografts was 65.86 ± 32.84 days (11-160 days). Biopsies of prior chemotherapy had a higher transplantation rate (52.1%, 37/71) than biopsies after chemotherapy (21.9%, 25/114; P = 0.000). No differences were found between the latency period of xenografts and characteristics of patients. The pathological and molecular features of PDTX as well as chemosensitivity were highly consistent with those of primary tumors of patients. The genetic characteristics were stable during passaging of PDTX models. In summary PDTX models using gastroscopic biopsies in gastric cancer were demonstrated for the first time, and the biological characteristics of the PDTX models were highly consistent with patients, which provided the best preclinical study platform for gastric cancer. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


Gao J.,Peking University | Li J.,Peking University | Li Y.,Peking University | Li Z.,Peking University | And 6 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Objective: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with no mutations in exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 of the KIT gene and exons 12, and 18 of the PDGFRA gene were defined as KIT/PDGFRA wild-type and they accounted for ~15-20% of GISTs. However, some KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs with KIT mutations in other exons were occasionally reported. We therefore assessed GISTs to understand the whole genomic genotypes of KIT or PDGFRA genes in KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs. Methods: A cohort of 185 KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs from 1,080 cases was retrospectively assessed. Thirty-nine patients were excluded due to insufficiency of genomic DNA data or failure of library preparation, and 146 patients were analyzed by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by validation. Results: For hot spots in KIT and PDGFRA genes, 23 out of 146 KIT/PDGFRA wild-type cases carried mutations according to NGS; there were 19 KIT mutations and 4 PDGFRA mutations, and these were exclusive. Intratumoral KIT mutational heterogeneity was observed in 4 of 19 samples which potentially triggered mechanisms of polyclonal evolution and metastasis and drug sensitivity. Eleven patients treated with imatinib were evaluable for clinical response, and 2 of 3 patients with KIT mutations achieved partial response (PR), while only 1 of 8 patients without KIT mutations reached PR. Conclusion: NGS had the potential property to identify partial mutant tumors from a subset of GISTs regarded as KIT/PDGFRA wild-type tumors using Sanger sequencing, and provided a better understanding of KIT/PDGFRA genotypes as well as identified patients eligible for imatinib therapy.


Bettegowda C.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Sausen M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Sausen M.,Personal Genome Diagnostics (PGD) | Leary R.J.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 70 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

The development of noninvasive methods to detect and monitor tumors continues to be a major challenge in oncology. We used digital polymerase chain reaction-based technologies to evaluate the ability of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to detect tumors in 640 patients with various cancer types. We found that ctDNA was detectable in >75% of patients with advanced pancreatic, ovarian, colorectal, bladder, gastroesophageal, breast, melanoma, hepatocellular, and head and neck cancers, but in less than 50% of primary brain, renal, prostate, or thyroid cancers. In patients with localized tumors, ctDNA was detected in 73, 57, 48, and 50% of patients with colorectal cancer, gastroesophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast adenocarcinoma, respectively. ctDNA was often present in patients without detectable circulating tumor cells, suggesting that these two biomarkers are distinct entities. In a separate panel of 206 patients with metastatic colorectal cancers, we showed that the sensitivity of ctDNA for detection of clinically relevant KRAS gene mutations was 87.2% and its specificity was 99.2%. Finally, we assessed whether ctDNA could provide clues into the mechanisms underlying resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor blockade in 24 patients who objectively responded to therapy but subsequently relapsed. Twenty-three (96%) of these patients developed one or more mutations in genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Together, these data suggest that ctDNA is a broadly applicable, sensitive, and specific biomarker that can be used for a variety of clinical and research purposes in patients with multiple different types of cancer.


Yang Y.,Bayi Childrens Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of Beijing Military Region | Wu J.,MyGenostics Inc. | Liu H.,Bayi Childrens Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of Beijing Military Region | Chen X.,Bayi Childrens Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of Beijing Military Region | And 3 more authors.
Genomics | Year: 2013

Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta (ML II alpha/beta; I-cell disease) is a rare, inherited, metabolic disease and has often been clinically misdiagnosed. ML II alpha/beta results from a deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-PT), which causes the lysosomal enzymes to accumulate in plasma. We identified two new Chinese patients with ML II alpha/beta by lysosomal enzyme assay. Using targeted next-generation sequencing genetic analysis, we located two homozygous nonsense mutations in the GNPTAB gene, c.1071G>A (p.W357X) and c.1090C>T (p.R364X). These results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To our knowledge, the c.1071G>A mutation has not been previously reported. Our findings add to the number of reported cases of this rare illness and to the GNPTAB pathogenic mutation database. This work also demonstrates the application of lysosomal enzyme assay and targeted next-generation sequencing for the genetic screening analysis and diagnosis of ML II alpha/beta. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Ying J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Lin C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu J.,MyGenostics Inc. | Guo L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements define a subgroup of lung cancer which is eligible to targeted kinase inhibition. The aim of this study is to observe the incidence rate of ALK fusion in a large cohort of Chinese digestive tract cancer patients. Patients and Methods Tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed from 808 digestive tract cancer cases, including 169 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 182 gastric cancer and 457 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. We tested all cases for ALK expression via a fully automated immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. The IHC-positive cases were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), target gene enrichment and sequencing for confirmation of ALK gene rearrangement and discovery of novel fusion partner. Results Among the tested cases, 2 (0.44%) CRC cases showed positive both by IHC and FISH. By qRT-PCR, EML4â€"ALK fusion was found in one IHC-positive CRC case. In another IHC-positive CRC case, target gene enrichment and sequencing revealed ALK was fused to a novel partner, spectrin beta non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1). One gastric cancer case showed partially positive IHC result, but no fusion was found by FISH and gene sequencing. Conclusions The incidence rate of ALK gene fusion in Chinese CRC patients was 0.44%,but not detectable in gastric and esophageal cancers. The novel SPTBN1-ALK fusion, together with other ALK fusion genes, may become a potential target for anti-ALK therapy. © 2015 Ying et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


An W.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang J.,Peking Union Medical College | Chang L.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang Y.,Peking Union Medical College | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hematology and Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs) comprise a group of heterogenous genetic diseases that are caused by the mutation of various genes involved in heme biosynthesis, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, or mitochondrial solute transport or metabolism. However, approximately 40 % of patients with CSA have not been found to have pathogenic gene mutations. In this study, we systematically analyzed the mutation profile in 10 Chinese patients with sporadic CSA. Findings: We performed targeted deep sequencing analysis in ten patients with CSA using a panel of 417 genes that included known CSA-related genes. Mitochondrial genomes were analyzed using next-generation sequencing with a mitochondria enrichment kit and the HiSeq2000 sequencing platform. The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The ALAS2 mutation was detected in one patient. SLC25A38 mutations were detected in three patients, including three novel mutations. Mitochondrial DNA deletions were detected in two patients. No disease-causing mutations were detected in four patients. Conclusion: To our knowledge, the pyridoxine-effective mutation C471Y of ALAS2, the compound heterozygous mutation W87X, I143Pfs146X, and the homozygous mutation R134C of SLC25A38 were found for the first time. Our findings add to the number of reported cases of this rare disease and to the CSA pathogenic mutation database. Our findings expand the phenotypic profile of mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations. This work also demonstrates the application of a congenital blood disease assay and targeted capture sequencing for the genetic screening analysis and diagnosis of heterogenous genetic CSA. © 2015 An et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


An W.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang J.,Peking Union Medical College | Chang L.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang Y.,Peking Union Medical College | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hematology and Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs) comprise a group of heterogenous genetic diseases that are caused by the mutation of various genes involved in heme biosynthesis, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, or mitochondrial solute transport or metabolism. However, approximately 40 % of patients with CSA have not been found to have pathogenic gene mutations. In this study, we systematically analyzed the mutation profile in 10 Chinese patients with sporadic CSA. Findings: We performed targeted deep sequencing analysis in ten patients with CSA using a panel of 417 genes that included known CSA-related genes. Mitochondrial genomes were analyzed using next-generation sequencing with a mitochondria enrichment kit and the HiSeq2000 sequencing platform. The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The ALAS2 mutation was detected in one patient. SLC25A38 mutations were detected in three patients, including three novel mutations. Mitochondrial DNA deletions were detected in two patients. No disease-causing mutations were detected in four patients. Conclusion: To our knowledge, the pyridoxine-effective mutation C471Y of ALAS2, the compound heterozygous mutation W87X, I143Pfs146X, and the homozygous mutation R134C of SLC25A38 were found for the first time. Our findings add to the number of reported cases of this rare disease and to the CSA pathogenic mutation database. Our findings expand the phenotypic profile of mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations. This work also demonstrates the application of a congenital blood disease assay and targeted capture sequencing for the genetic screening analysis and diagnosis of heterogenous genetic CSA. © 2015 An et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Zhu T.,Peking Union Medical College | Huang S.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | Wu J.,MyGenostics Inc | Wang C.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | Yang T.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2015

Objective: To identify the genetic etiology in a Chinese patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). Methods: All coding exons and the flanking sequences of neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene from the patient were captured, individually barcoded and subjected to HiSeq2000 high-throughput sequencing. Suspected mutation was validated in the nuclear family members with Sanger sequencing. Results: A novel indel mutation, c. 789-790delAGinsT, was identified in the exon 8 of the NF1 gene in the patient but not in her asymptomatic parents. The mutation was predicted to have caused shifting of the reading frame and a premature downstream stop codon (p. K263Nfs ∗ 18). Two known polymorphisms, c. 888 +108 C>T (rs2953000) and c. 888 +118 G>T (rs2952999), was detected in the flanking of the indel mutation in the patient and her father. Sequencing chromatogram for the family indicates that above changes are located on the same chromosome. Conclusion: The c. 789-790delAGinsT, as a de novo mutation occurring on the paternally derived chromosome, is most likely to be causative for the disease. Compared with Sanger sequencing, targeted next-generation sequencing is more efficient and can dramatically reduce the cost for the genetic testing of NF-1.


Kinde I.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Bettegowda C.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Bettegowda C.,Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes | Wang Y.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 18 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Papanicolaou (Pap) smears have revolutionized the management of patients with cervical cancers by permitting the detection of early, surgically curable tumors and their precursors. In recent years, the traditional Pap smear has been replaced by a liquid-based method, which allows not only cytologic evaluation but also collection of DNA for detection of human papillomavirus, the causative agent of cervical cancer. We reasoned that this routinely collected DNA could be exploited to detect somatic mutations present in rare tumor cells that accumulate in the cervix once shed from endometrial or ovarian cancers. A panel of genes that are commonly mutated in endometrial and ovarian cancers was assembled with new whole-exome sequencing data from 22 endometrial cancers and previously published data on other tumor types. We used this panel to search for mutations in 24 endometrial and 22 ovarian cancers and identified mutations in all 46 samples. With a sensitive massively parallel sequencing method, we were able to identify the same mutations in the DNA from liquid Pap smear specimens in 100% of endometrial cancers (24 of 24) and in 41% of ovarian cancers (9 of 22). Prompted by these findings, we developed a sequence-based method to query mutations in 12 genes in a single liquid Pap smear specimen without previous knowledge of the tumor's genotype. When applied to 14 samples selected from the positive cases described above, the expected tumor-specific mutations were identified. These results demonstrate that DNA from most endometrial and a fraction of ovarian cancers can be detected in a standard liquid-based Pap smear specimen obtained during routine pelvic examination. Although improvements need to be made before applying this test in a routine clinical manner, it represents a promising step toward a broadly applicable screening methodology for the early detection of gynecologic malignancies.

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