Plymouth, MI, United States
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Bailey S.E.,Queen Mary, University of London | Mao X.,Queen Mary, University of London | Mao X.,East China Normal University | Struebig M.,Queen Mary, University of London | And 7 more authors.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2016

Museums hold most of the world's most valuable biological specimens and tissues collected, including type material that is often decades or even centuries old. Unfortunately, traditional museum collection and storage methods were not designed to preserve the nucleic acids held within the material, often reducing its potential viability and value for many genetic applications. High-throughput sequencing technologies and associated applications offer new opportunities for obtaining sequence data from museum samples. In particular, target sequence capture offers a promising approach for recovering large numbers of orthologous loci from relatively small amounts of starting material. In the present study, we test the utility of target sequence capture for obtaining data from museum-held material from a speciose mammalian genus: the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae: Chiroptera). We designed a 'bait' for capturing > 3600 genes and applied this to 10 species of horseshoe bat that had been collected between 93 and 7 years ago and preserved using a range of methods. We found that the mean recovery rate per species was approximately 89% of target genes with partial sequence coverage, ranging from 3024 to 3186 genes recovered. On average, we recovered 1206 genes with ≥ 90% sequence coverage, per species. Our findings provide good support for the application of large-scale bait capture across congeneric species spanning approximately 15 Myr of evolution. On the other hand, we observed no clear association between the success of capture and the phylogenetic distance from the bait model, although sample sizes precluded a formal test. © 2016 The Linnean Society of London.


Hoffberg S.L.,University of Georgia | Kieran T.J.,University of Georgia | Catchen J.M.,Urbana University | Devault A.,MycroArray | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2016

Molecular ecologists seek to genotype hundreds to thousands of loci from hundreds to thousands of individuals at minimal cost per sample. Current methods, such as restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and sequence capture, are constrained by costs associated with inefficient use of sequencing data and sample preparation. Here, we introduce RADcap, an approach that combines the major benefits of RADseq (low cost with specific start positions) with those of sequence capture (repeatable sequencing of specific loci) to significantly increase efficiency and reduce costs relative to current approaches. RADcap uses a new version of dual-digest RADseq (3RAD) to identify candidate SNP loci for capture bait design and subsequently uses custom sequence capture baits to consistently enrich candidate SNP loci across many individuals. We combined this approach with a new library preparation method for identifying and removing PCR duplicates from 3RAD libraries, which allows researchers to process RADseq data using traditional pipelines, and we tested the RADcap method by genotyping sets of 96–384 Wisteria plants. Our results demonstrate that our RADcap method: (i) methodologically reduces (to <5%) and allows computational removal of PCR duplicate reads from data, (ii) achieves 80–90% reads on target in 11 of 12 enrichments, (iii) returns consistent coverage (≥4×) across >90% of individuals at up to 99.8% of the targeted loci, (iv) produces consistently high occupancy matrices of genotypes across hundreds of individuals and (v) costs significantly less than current approaches. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd


Delsuc F.,Montpellier University | Gibb G.C.,Montpellier University | Gibb G.C.,Massey University | Kuch M.,McMaster University | And 9 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2016

Among the fossils of hitherto unknown mammals that Darwin collected in South America between 1832 and 1833 during the Beagle expedition [1] were examples of the large, heavily armored herbivores later known as glyptodonts. Ever since, glyptodonts have fascinated evolutionary biologists because of their remarkable skeletal adaptations and seemingly isolated phylogenetic position even within their natural group, the cingulate xenarthrans (armadillos and their allies [2]). In possessing a carapace comprised of fused osteoderms, the glyptodonts were clearly related to other cingulates, but their precise phylogenetic position as suggested by morphology remains unresolved [3,4]. To provide a molecular perspective on this issue, we designed sequence-capture baits using in silico reconstructed ancestral sequences and successfully assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of Doedicurus sp., one of the largest glyptodonts. Our phylogenetic reconstructions establish that glyptodonts are in fact deeply nested within the armadillo crown-group, representing a distinct subfamily (Glyptodontinae) within family Chlamyphoridae [5]. Molecular dating suggests that glyptodonts diverged no earlier than around 35 million years ago, in good agreement with their fossil record. Our results highlight the derived nature of the glyptodont morphotype, one aspect of which is a spectacular increase in body size until their extinction at the end of the last ice age. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | MycroArray, Urbana University, Louisiana State University and University of Georgia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular ecology resources | Year: 2016

Molecular ecologists seek to genotype hundreds to thousands of loci from hundreds to thousands of individuals at minimal cost per sample. Current methods, such as restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and sequence capture, are constrained by costs associated with inefficient use of sequencing data and sample preparation. Here, we introduce RADcap, an approach that combines the major benefits of RADseq (low cost with specific start positions) with those of sequence capture (repeatable sequencing of specific loci) to significantly increase efficiency and reduce costs relative to current approaches. RADcap uses a new version of dual-digest RADseq (3RAD) to identify candidate SNP loci for capture bait design and subsequently uses custom sequence capture baits to consistently enrich candidate SNP loci across many individuals. We combined this approach with a new library preparation method for identifying and removing PCR duplicates from 3RAD libraries, which allows researchers to process RADseq data using traditional pipelines, and we tested the RADcap method by genotyping sets of 96-384 Wisteria plants. Our results demonstrate that our RADcap method: (i) methodologically reduces (to <5%) and allows computational removal of PCR duplicate reads from data, (ii) achieves 80-90% reads on target in 11 of 12 enrichments, (iii) returns consistent coverage (4) across >90% of individuals at up to 99.8% of the targeted loci, (iv) produces consistently high occupancy matrices of genotypes across hundreds of individuals and (v) costs significantly less than current approaches.


17

PubMed | University of California at Irvine, EPHE Paris, MYcroarray, McMaster University and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: Current biology : CB | Year: 2016

Smallpox holds a unique position in the history of medicine. It was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed and remains the only human disease eradicated by vaccination. Although there have been claims of smallpox in Egypt, India, and China dating back millennia [1-4], the timescale of emergence of the causative agent, variola virus (VARV), and how itevolved in the context of increasingly widespread immunization, have proven controversial [4-9]. In particular, some molecular-clock-based studies have suggested that key events in VARV evolution only occurred during the last two centuries [4-6] and hence in apparent conflict with anecdotal historical reports, although it is difficult to distinguish smallpox from other pustular rashes by description alone. To address these issues, we captured, sequenced, and reconstructed a draft genome of an ancient strain of VARV, sampled from a Lithuanian child mummy dating between 1643 and 1665 and close to the time of several documented European epidemics [1, 2, 10]. When compared to vaccinia virus, this archival strain contained the same pattern of gene degradation as 20


Minty J.J.,University of Michigan | Lesnefsky A.A.,University of Michigan | Lin F.,University of Michigan | Lin F.,Tianjin University | And 11 more authors.
Microbial Cell Factories | Year: 2011

Background: Isobutanol is a promising next-generation biofuel with demonstrated high yield microbial production, but the toxicity of this molecule reduces fermentation volumetric productivity and final titer. Organic solvent tolerance is a complex, multigenic phenotype that has been recalcitrant to rational engineering approaches. We apply experimental evolution followed by genome resequencing and a gene expression study to elucidate genetic bases of adaptation to exogenous isobutanol stress.Results: The adaptations acquired in our evolved lineages exhibit antagonistic pleiotropy between minimal and rich medium, and appear to be specific to the effects of longer chain alcohols. By examining genotypic adaptation in multiple independent lineages, we find evidence of parallel evolution in marC, hfq, mdh, acrAB, gatYZABCD, and rph genes. Many isobutanol tolerant lineages show reduced RpoS activity, perhaps related to mutations in hfq or acrAB. Consistent with the complex, multigenic nature of solvent tolerance, we observe adaptations in a diversity of cellular processes. Many adaptations appear to involve epistasis between different mutations, implying a rugged fitness landscape for isobutanol tolerance. We observe a trend of evolution targeting post-transcriptional regulation and high centrality nodes of biochemical networks. Collectively, the genotypic adaptations we observe suggest mechanisms of adaptation to isobutanol stress based on remodeling the cell envelope and surprisingly, stress response attenuation.Conclusions: We have discovered a set of genotypic adaptations that confer increased tolerance to exogenous isobutanol stress. Our results are immediately useful to further efforts to engineer more isobutanol tolerant host strains of E. coli for isobutanol production. We suggest that rpoS and post-transcriptional regulators, such as hfq, RNA helicases, and sRNAs may be interesting mutagenesis targets for future global phenotype engineering. © 2011 Minty et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Dang U.J.,McMaster University | Dang U.J.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Devault A.M.,MYcroarray | Mortimer T.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2016

Lateral gene transfer is an important mechanism for evolution among bacteria. Here, genome-wide gene insertion and deletion rates are modeled in a maximum-likelihood framework with the additional flexibility of modeling potential missing data. The performance of the models is illustrated using simulations and a data set on gene family phyletic patterns from Gardnerella vaginalis that includes an ancient taxon. A novel application involving pseudogenization/genome reduction magnitudes is also illustrated, using gene family data from Mycobacterium spp. Finally, an R package called indelmiss is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network at https://cran.r-project.org/package=indelmiss, with support documentation and examples. © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.


Enk J.M.,McMaster University | Devault A.M.,McMaster University | Kuch M.,McMaster University | Murgha Y.E.,MYcroarray | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

We report metrics from complete genome capture of nuclear DNA from extinct mammoths using biotinylated RNAs transcribed from an Asian elephant DNA extract. Enrichment of the nuclear genome ranged from 1.06-to 18.65-fold, to an apparent maximum threshold of ~80% on-target. This projects an order of magnitude less costly complete genome sequencing from long-dead organisms, even when a reference genome is unavailable for bait design.


PubMed | McMaster University, University of Wisconsin - Madison and MYcroarray
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics | Year: 2016

Lateral gene transfer is an important mechanism for evolution among bacteria. Here, genome-wide gene insertion and deletion rates are modeled in a maximum-likelihood framework with the additional flexibility of modeling potential missing data. The performance of the models is illustrated using simulations and a data set on gene family phyletic patterns from Gardnerella vaginalis that includes an ancient taxon. A novel application involving pseudogenization/genome reduction magnitudes is also illustrated, using gene family data from Mycobacterium spp. Finally, an R package called indelmiss is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network at https://cran.r-project.org/package=indelmiss, with support documentation and examples.

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