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Tsurumi ku, Japan

Ikoma T.,Hokuriku University | Tsuchiya Y.,Niigata University | Asai T.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare | Okano K.,Mycotoxin Research Association | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range < 5-1,059 μg/kg) and Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range < 5-47 μg/kg), which has an intermediate GBC incidence. The OTA contamination in the red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

Iida M.,Tohoku University | Iida M.,Mycotoxin Research Association | Kanno M.,Tohoku University | Kijima A.,Tohoku University
Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi (Japanese Edition) | Year: 2012

In order to reveal the conservation and management units of Corbicula japonica in East Asia, the genetic population structure of the corbicula species was investigated using mtDNA COI sequences. In total, 653 specimens of C. japonica and C. spp. were collected from 23 localities in Japan, Russia, the Korean Peninsula and China. COI sequences revealed that the specimens were divided into four groups of species: C. japonica, C. sp. (type Taifu I), C. leana and C. sandai. The C. japonica group could then be divided into four geographic groups: 1) Russia, Hokkaido and Japan Sea group, 2) Pacific Ocean group, 3) North-East of Korean Peninsula group, and 4) South-West of Korean Peninsula group. In addition, two genetically independent populations, Tone River and Kuwana in Japan, were observed, suggesting the invasion of foreign genomes.

Tsuchiya Y.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare | Terao M.,Niigata University | Okano K.,Mycotoxin Research Association | Nakamura K.,Niigata University | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2011

High consumption of red chili pepper has been shown to be a risk factor for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chilean women with gallstones, and included mutagens may be important in this context. We aimed to investigate the mutagenicity and mutagens in Chilean red chili pepper in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA1537, TA100, and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). Pure capsaicin was tested for mutagenicity using strain TA98. The presence of aflatoxins was evaluated by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, and then the concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured by an HPLC system. In strain TA98, the mean numbers of revertant colonies with and without the S9 mix were 2.5- and 2.2-fold higher than those of each negative control, respectively. However, pure capsaicin did not show mutagenic activity in strain TA98. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper was confirmed, and the concentrations of aflatoxins B1 and G1 were 4.4 ng/g and 0.5 ng/g, respectively. Our findings suggest that low-level but protracted exposure to aflatoxins may be associated with the development of GBC in Chilean women who carry gallstones.

Okano K.,Mycotoxin Research Association | Piscoya A.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences | Nishi C.Y.,Hospital San Francisco de Asis | Yamamoto M.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

Ogawa Y.,Nihon University | Hirose D.,Nihon University | Akiyama A.,Nihon University | Ichinoe M.,Tokyo Kasei University | Ichinoe M.,Mycotoxin Research Association
Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2014

Penicillium roqueforti is a well known starter used for blue cheese production. Two closely related species, P. carneum and P. paneum, were previously classified as varieties of P. roqueforti. Penicillium roqueforti does not produce patulin, a mycotoxin harmful for human health, whereas both P. carneum and P. paneum actively produce this toxin. From the viewpoint of food safety, it is thus important to confirm that P. carneum and P. paneum are not used for cheese production. In the present study, the taxonomic position of Penicillium strains used for blue cheese production was examined on the basis of the partial sequence of β-tubulin. Twenty-eight Penicillium strains isolated from blue cheeses were investigated. All the examined strains belonged to P. roqueforti. Therefore, the Penicillium strains used for production of the blue cheese samples examined here do not negatively impact on human health.

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