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Mount Isa, Australia

Taj-Aldeen S.J.,Mycology Unit | Alkhalf A.,Hamad Medical Corporation | Al Bozom I.,Hamad Medical Corporation | Fothergill A.W.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Sutton D.A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Medical Mycology | Year: 2010

Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Rhinocladiella mackenziei (formerly Ramichlo-ridium mackenziei) is extremely rare, and geographically limited to the Middle East. The fungus exclusively targets the brain and infections have a grave prognosis. Eighteen cases have been reported in the literature from 1983 to 2004 with almost 100% mortality. Our patient presented in February 2008 with a brain abscess while receiving chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. Diagnosis was by craniotomy and aspiration of the brain abscess. Direct microscopy showed dematiaceous fungal hyphae. R. mackenziei was recovered in culture and this identification was confirmed by molecular analysis. Examination of histopathological sections of tissue from the brain biopsy revealed moniliform hyphae characteristic for phaeohyphomycosis. The patient failed to respond to antifungal therapy with amphotericin B and voriconazole or amphotericin B and posaconazole and finally expired 64 days after diagnosis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing showed this isolate to be resistant to amphotericin B while susceptible to itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Previously published antifungal susceptibility data indicate that although strains show variable susceptibility to amphotericin B, the organism is generally refractory to treatment with this agent. Similar outcomes are seen with the azole agents used alone or in combination with other drugs. Although no specific risk factors have been identified, the majority of cases have occurred in immunocompromised individuals. R. mackenziei is a highly virulent agent of serious cerebral phaeohyphomycosis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of central nervous system disease in the Middle East. © 2010 ISHAM. Source

Barrs V.R.,University of New South Wales | van Doorn T.M.,Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Fungal Biodiversity Center | Houbraken J.,Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Fungal Biodiversity Center | Kidd S.E.,Mycology Unit | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph) isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a dog with disseminated invasive aspergillosis. Disease in all host species was often refractory to aggressive antifungal therapeutic regimens. Four other human isolates previously reported as A. viridinutans were identified as A. felis on comparative sequence analysis of the partial β-tubulin and/or calmodulin genes. A. felis is a heterothallic mold with a fully functioning reproductive cycle, as confirmed by mating-type analysis, induction of teleomorphs within 7 to 10 days in vitro and ascospore germination. Phenotypic analyses show that A. felis can be distinguished from the related species A. viridinutans by its ability to grow at 45°C and from A. fumigatus by its inability to grow at 50°C. Itraconazole and voriconazole cross-resistance was common in vitro. © 2013 Barrs et al. Source

Holmes N.E.,Austin Center for Infection Research | Holmes N.E.,University of Melbourne | Trevillyan J.M.,Austin Center for Infection Research | Kidd S.E.,Mycology Unit | Leong T.Y.-M.,Austin Pathology
Medical Mycology Case Reports | Year: 2013

We report a case of Scedosporium prolificans infection in a patient following surgery for squamous cell lung carcinoma. Combination therapy with voriconazole and terbinafine was commenced for intrathoracic infection and mycotic vasculitis. In spite of antifungal treatment, he developed culture-positive sternal and rib osteomyelitis four months later. Scedosporiosis is not commonly reported in patients with solid organ malignancies, and this case highlights its aggressive nature and propensity for direct local invasion. © 2013 International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. Source

Macesic N.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Fleming S.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Kidd S.,Mycology Unit | Madigan V.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Transplant Infectious Disease | Year: 2014

Prototheca species are achlorophyllus algae. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii cause human disease. In immunocompetent individuals, they cause soft tissue infections and olecranon bursitis, but in transplant recipients, these organisms can cause disseminated disease. We report a fatal case of disseminated P. zopfii infection in an hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipient with bloodstream infection and involvement of multiple soft tissue sites. We review all previous cases of protothecosis in HSCT reported in the literature. Protothecosis is uncommon after HSCT, but has a disseminated presentation that is frequently fatal. It is commonly misidentified as a yeast. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors and contamination of central venous catheters may contribute to development of protothecosis. Optimal treatment approaches are yet to be defined. New agents such as miltefosine may be possible future therapies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Background: Intracranial fungal masses are uncommon diseases, but their incidence is increasing, most often due to the prolonged survival of patients with different immunodeficiencies. The management of patients with intracranial fungal masses included stereotactic biopsy for diagnosis, partial or radical surgery excision and prolonged antifungal therapy. Aims: We report the case of a 51-year-old diabetic man with a history of psoas abscess due to Candida albicans 1 year before the onset of neurological symptoms, including headache and generalized tonoclonic seizures. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging showed a single lesion located in the right parietal lobe with mass effect, surrounding edema and enhancement after injection of gadolinium. The material was purulent. Results: Direct microscopic examination showed hyaline, branched and septate hyphae compatible with fungal elements. Conclusions: Fungal infections, especially due to Candida species, should be considered in diabetic patients with parenchymal brain abscesses. Radical excision followed by prolonged antifungal therapy based on fluconazole or amphotericin B is necessary to improve the prognosis of this type of patients. © 2009 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Source

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