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Wiltshire P.E.J.,University of Aberdeen | Hawksworth D.L.,Mycology Section | Hawksworth D.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Hawksworth D.L.,Natural History Museum in London | Edwards K.J.,University of Aberdeen
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2015

A rapid method for evaluating suspect testimony is valuable at any stage in an inquiry and can result in a change of direction in an investigation. Rape cases, in particular, can present problems where a defendant renders DNA analysis redundant by claiming that the claimant consented to have sexual relations. Forensic palynology is valuable in confirming or eliminating locations as being crime scenes, thus checking the testimony of both parties. In contrast to some forensic disciplines, forensic palynology can provide critical information without time-consuming full analysis. Two cases are described where the palynological assemblages from comparator samples of pertinent places were compared with those obtained from clothing of claimants and defendants. The results of rapid microscopical scanning of relevant preparations led to early confessions, thus obviating the need for costly analyses and protracted court proceedings. A third case demonstrates the unbiased nature of this technique where a man, although innocent of any offense, lied about having visited the crime scene for fear of prosecution. This highlights the need for sensitive policing in claims of rape. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Moreno-Coutino G.,Mycology Section | Toussaint-Caire S.,Dermatopathology Section | Arenas R.,Chair Mycology Section
Mycoses | Year: 2010

Fungal leuconychia defines the clinical manifestations of white changes in onychomycosis. This uncommon clinical aspect is mostly seen, although not exclusively, in immunosuppressed patients. The principal isolated organism is Trichophyton spp. but the entity can also be caused by non-dermatophyte moulds. The mechanism of infection is unclear; it could be acquired through the proximal nail fold, or, as more recently proposed, may be secondary to lymphatic or vascular dissemination. To analyse the clinical, mycological and histopathological features of fungal leuconychia, we included 10 patients with the clinical diagnosis of fungal leuconychia. Direct examination of culture and nail plate biopsy were performed. Nine patients had confirmed fungal leuconychia. Four had a positive culture and all had positive haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stains for fungal elements with varying degrees of nail plate invasion. Seven of our patients were immunosuppressed and the isolated aetiological agents are the same as previously reported. The direct examination is reliable, fast and inexpensive to establish the diagnosis. The correlation of onychomycosis with histology, stained with H&E and PAS was 100%. We think that the site of nail plate invasion provides more information to support the theory that the infection reaches the ungual apparatus through systemic dissemination. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Richter C.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Wittstein K.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Kirk P.M.,Mycology Section | Kirk P.M.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2015

The taxonomic and nomenclatural history of the genus Ganoderma and related basidiomycetes is reviewed and compared to recent studies on its molecular phylogeny. A basidiomycete belonging to the genus Ganoderma can often rather easily be recognised in the field from the macro-morphological characters of the sporocarp. The most important species and lineages can also be discriminated well by molecular phylogeny. However, the application of incongruent species concepts and the frequent misapplication of European names by chemists and other non-taxonomists have created confusion in the scientific literature. The identity of the species reported in the course of mycochemical studies can often not be verified, since no voucher material was retained. In this review, an overview on the most important types of specific chemotaxonomic traits (i.e., secondary metabolites of the basidiomes and mycelia) reported from the genus is provided. Albeit certain triterpenoids such as ganoderic and lucidenic acids, steroids (e.g. ergosterol) and triterpenes (e.g. friedelin) appear to have some chemotaxonomic value at the generic rank, their relevance for species discrimination remains to be assessed. We propose that all important names in Ganoderma should be, as required, epitypified by fresh collections for which living cultures should be made available and that these should be examined by a combination of morphological, chemotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic methods to attain a more stable taxonomy. © 2014, School of Science.

Isa-Isa R.,Instituto Dermatologico Y Cirugia Of Piel Dr Huberto Bogaert Diaz | Garcia C.,Dawson Medical Group | Isa M.,Instituto Dermatologico Y Cirugia Of Piel Dr Huberto Bogaert Diaz | Arenas R.,Mycology Section
Clinics in Dermatology | Year: 2012

Phaeohyphomycosis designates fungal infections caused by pheoid or melanized fungi and characterized histopathologically by the presence of septate hyphae, pseudohyphae, and yeasts. Etiologic agents include . Exophiala, Phoma, Bipolaris, Phialophora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Alternaria, Exserohilum, and . Phialemonium sp. The most common are . Exophiala jeanselmei and . Wangiella dermatitidis.The clinical presentation depends on the immune status of the host: superficial (tinea nigra and black piedra); cutaneous (scytalidiosis) and corneal; subcutaneous (mycotic cyst); and systemic phaeohyphomycosis in the immunocompromised host.The mycotic cyst is a localized form, characterized by subcutaneous asymptomatic nodular lesions that develop after traumatic implantation of fungi, especially on the extremities. The average size of the cysts is 2.5 cm. KOH examination reveals pigmented yeasts, pseudohyphae, and hyphae. A cutaneous biopsy specimen usually shows an abscess or a suppurative granuloma with pigmented yeasts and pseudohyphae. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, but additional anti-fungal therapy is recommended for recurrent cases and immunocompromised patients. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

Roberts P.,Mycology Section
Kew Bulletin | Year: 2011

Collections of three fungal species described from Germany by Alexander von Humboldt have been rediscovered in the mycological herbarium at Kew. These collections are considered lectotypes of Boletus patella, B. venosus, and Clavaria aurea and are assigned to Postia stiptica, Physisporinus vitreus, and Calocera viscosa respectively. Humboldt's Central & South American collections are also at Kew and a list of specimens is appended. Based on the rediscovered type collection, Favolus humboldtii is considered a synonym of Polyporus tenuiculus. © 2011 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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