Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory

Santiniketan, India

Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory

Santiniketan, India
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Ghosh R.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Barman S.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mukherjee R.,Daegu University | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory
Microbiological Research | Year: 2016

Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56 ± 13.38 μg ml-1) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12 ± 17.15 μg ml-1) and P10 (485.18 ± 14.23 μg ml-1) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


Sarbadhikary S.B.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory
Rhizosphere | Year: 2017

Two bacterial strains VBLR10 and VBLR39 were identified for their anti-fungal properties from the rhizosphere of healthy Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) plants in a wilt infested field of Binuria, West Bengal and showed maximum sequence similarities with Bacillus subtilis and Cellulosimicrobium cellulans respectively in 16 s rRNA gene sequence homology. The strains showed excellent plant growth promoting activities in small field trials and antifungal activity in the laboratory against Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium oryzae, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium oxysporum producing prominent zones of inhibition on agar. Cell free supernatants of both VBLR10 and VBLR39 could reduce radial mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum when they were used to poison the growth medium. VBLR39 was also found to produce siderophore in a qualitative assay. Both strains survived for more than one year in alluvial soil sample at 28 °C and at 37 °C. The efficiency and applicability of the strains under field conditions were also established conclusively as they improve growth and yield parameters of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Solanum melongena (brinjal) plants both qualitatively and quantitatively. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Mitra P.,University of Calcutta | Mitra P.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Acharya K.,University of Calcutta
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2014

Human beings like most organisms have defence and repair systems to fight against oxidative stress but at times these become inadequate to provide complete protection and here lies the need for antioxidant supplements. The present article focuses on the antioxidative activity of ethanolic extract of the mushroom Termitomyces microcarpus. A series of in-vitro assays were conducted with chelation of 50 % ferrous ion with only 0.14 mg/ml concentration, reducing power having 50% inhibition capacity at 1.65 mg/ml. Whereas DPPH and SOD assay gave EC50 values at 1.98 mg/ml and 0.295 mg/ml concentration respectively. Even presence of phytochemicals were recorded in the order of total phenol> total flavonoids> ascorbic acid> β carotene> lycopene. Hence, it can be suggested that ethanolic extract of Termitomyces microcarpus can be used as a good medicinal entity.


Mitra P.,University of Calcutta | Mitra P.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Sarkar J.,University of Calcutta | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Acharya K.,University of Calcutta
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2014

Oxidative stress related diseases are grasping the human race rapidly, hence, the need for antioxidants are increasing. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Termitomyces medius using various in-vitro assays. Content of phytochemicals, when analysed, were found to be in the following order; total phenol> total flavonoids> ascorbic acid> β carotene> lycopene. DPPH radical scavenging test showed the best results with EC50 value at concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. Chelation of ferrous ion, superoxide radical scavenging ability and reducing power assays had their 50% inhibition potential in the range of 0.68-2.05 mg/ml. It can be inferred, from the results that, ethanolic extract of Termitomyces medius can be used as a potent antioxidant for medication.


Sarbadhikary S.B.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Pal B.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory
International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research | Year: 2016

Objective: The objectives of this study were to isolate endophytic fungi from Melastoma malabathricum L. leaves and to study their antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials. Methods: Disc diffusion method and Agar well diffusion method was carried out for studying the antibacterial and antifungal range of the isolated endophytes MMF5 and MMF9. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl) reduction assay was followed for the study of antioxidant activities of the isolated. CFU counting method was followed for determining the MICs of the isolates against two selected bacteria and to know the mode of action. Results: Two endophytic fungi have been isolated which were identified as species of Penicillium by studying their morphology under a compound light microscope. Both were found to show great antibacterial activities against Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of the ethyl acetate extracts of MMF5 and MMF9 were found to be 150μg/ml and 100μg/ml respectively for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with the bacteriostatic mode of action. They also exhibited good antifungal activities against an animal as well as plant pathogenic fungi. IC50 value of MMF5 and MMF9 in an antioxidant assay using stable DPPH radical was found to be 52.38μg/ml and 24.44μg/ml respectively in comparison to the control ascorbic acid having the value 8.5μg/ml. Conclusion: From this study, it can be said that due to having good antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, the strains can be used as a prospective source in the medicinal industry for the drug development. © 2016 The Authors.


Mitra P.,University of Calcutta | Mitra P.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Acharya K.,University of Calcutta
Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants | Year: 2016

The antioxidant properties, mycochemical, and phenolic profiling of Termitomyces clypeatus, an edible mushroom from the lateritic region of West Bengal, India, was done. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, chelating ability, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity assays. Their EC50 values ranged from 8.25 µg.mL–1 to 1.008 mg.mL–1. Among the mycochemical constituents, phenols, ascorbic acid, and flavonoids were higher than β-carotene and lycopene. The analysis of the phenolic compounds performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of pyrogallol (50.34 µg.mg–1). © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Mitra P.,University of Calcutta | Mitra P.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Acharya K.,University of Calcutta
Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit | Year: 2015

Polyphenol rich fraction of Termitomyces heimii, a wild edible mushroom, was prepared to investigate its antioxidant activity and presence of different bioactive constituents. A preliminary chemical investigation was performed and it revealed that the fraction possessed various types of components with maximum amount of phenol. The other found components were in the following consequence flavonoid > ascorbic acid > ß-carotene > lycopene. HPLC data analyses showed presence of cinnamic acid and a good amount of pyrogallol (9603 µg/g of dry tissue of mushroom). The extract showed best hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.021 mg/ml). EC50 values for SOD radical scavenging assay was as low as 0.19 mg/ml. That of the rest of the antioxidant assays i.e., DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing assay were only 0.49 and 1.31 mg/ml respectively. Thus T. heimii can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants or for the development of a new health medicine for fighting against various human stress related diseases. © 2015 Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL)


Ghosh R.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Barman S.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mukhopadhyay A.,Oriental Institute of Technology | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory
Biological Control | Year: 2015

Fungal species causing fruit rot of jackfruit have been isolated from seven different locations of Birbhum and Burdwan districts of West Bengal, India. Each isolate showed more or less similar microscopic characteristics. A representative strain VBAM1, isolated from a severely infected jackfruit was identified as Rhizopus stolonifer by 28S rDNA sequence homology. Increased reducing sugar content in pectin broth indicates pectinase production by the pathogen. The pathogen was not inhibited by ≥500. μg/ml of Mancozeb and Bavistin. Copper oxychloride, Blytone 50% a.i. showed antifungal activity at comparatively lower concentration (200. μg/ml). Two rhizospheric bacterial strains, Burkholderia cenocepacia VBC7 and Pseudomonas poae VBK1, and three different strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis can produce significant zones of inhibition against the pathogen in dual culture overlay plates. They induced mycelia breakage of pathogen as evidenced from scanning electron micrographs. When applied to whole plants, the strains reduced or prevented disease and when applied postharvest to Rhizopus inoculated fruit delayed and/reduced disease incidence. These agents were also re-isolated from the applied surfaces and survived for long time when mixed with suitable carrier base indicating stability in a formulation over time. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Ghosh R.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Barman S.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Khatun J.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory
Biological Control | Year: 2016

Fungal pathogens causing the leaf spot disease of Aloe vera have been isolated from 40 randomly selected infected leaves, collected from different locations of Birbhum and Burdwan districts of West Bengal. All of the isolates showed similar morphological characteristics and the strain VBAV007, isolated from a severely infected Aloe leaf was identified as Alternaria alternata by D1/D2 region of 28S rRNA gene sequence homology. In addition to the destruction of leaf mesophyll tissues the pathogen also decreases the antimicrobial potential of A. vera gel. The commercially available fungicide mancozeb was effective at low concentration (100 μg/ml) to control the pathogen whereas it can tolerate 1000 μg/ml or more concentrations of bavistin. Two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains, viz. Burkholderia cenocepacia VBC7 and Pseudomonas poae VBK1 were able to produce prominent zones of inhibition against the pathogen in dual culture overlay plates. 89.3 ± 1.22% and 81.5 ± 2.67% inhibitions of conidial germination of the pathogen were noticed in the presence of cell free supernatant of VBK1 and VBC7 respectively. Radial growth assay also suggested prominent growth inhibition of VBAV007 by biocontrol strains. They induce mycelial breakage of pathogen as evidenced by scanning electron micrographs. Greenhouse challenge experiments also suggested excellent capabilities of biocontrol agents to reduce disease severity in good measure even after exposure to high concentration (3.1 × 104 conidia/ml) of pathogenic spores. During in vivo field experiments 54.25 ± 3.55% disease severity was observed for untreated plants, whereas only 11.69 ± 1.25% and 15.22 ± 2.64% disease severities were noticed in plants treated with VBK1 and VBC7 respectively. Since biocontrol organisms have the potential to decrease the disease severity, they also help to maintain the good health as well as antimicrobial potential of A. vera plants. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.5613.38 g ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.1217.15 g ml(-1)) and P10 (485.1814.23 g ml(-1)) at 28 C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil.

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