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Mitra P.,University of Calcutta | Mitra P.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Acharya K.,University of Calcutta
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2015

Objective: Wild edible mushroom, Termitomyces heimii, was obtained from lateritic zone of West Bengal to determine presence of phytochemicals and anti-oxidative properties. Methods: Ethanolic extract of Termitomyces heimii was prepared and analyzed for free radical scavenging activity in different test systems, namely 2, 2 -diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power determining assays. Results: It showed best reducing ability with effective concentration 50 value at only 0.575 mg/ml concentration. It also indicated presence of DPPH radical scavenging activity and gave good results for the TAC assay. Estimated phytochemical component analysis were found to be in an order of total phenol > total flavonoids > ascorbic acid > β carotene > lycopene. Among phenolic compounds presence of pyrogallol and vanillic acid were detected with high performance liquid chromatography. Conclusion: Hence, the study supports use of T. heimii as a therapeutic agent. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved. Source


Mitra P.,University of Calcutta | Mitra P.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Acharya K.,University of Calcutta
Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit | Year: 2015

Polyphenol rich fraction of Termitomyces heimii, a wild edible mushroom, was prepared to investigate its antioxidant activity and presence of different bioactive constituents. A preliminary chemical investigation was performed and it revealed that the fraction possessed various types of components with maximum amount of phenol. The other found components were in the following consequence flavonoid > ascorbic acid > ß-carotene > lycopene. HPLC data analyses showed presence of cinnamic acid and a good amount of pyrogallol (9603 µg/g of dry tissue of mushroom). The extract showed best hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.021 mg/ml). EC50 values for SOD radical scavenging assay was as low as 0.19 mg/ml. That of the rest of the antioxidant assays i.e., DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing assay were only 0.49 and 1.31 mg/ml respectively. Thus T. heimii can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants or for the development of a new health medicine for fighting against various human stress related diseases. © 2015 Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL) Source


Ghosh R.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Barman S.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mukhopadhyay A.,Oriental Institute of Technology | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory
Biological Control | Year: 2015

Fungal species causing fruit rot of jackfruit have been isolated from seven different locations of Birbhum and Burdwan districts of West Bengal, India. Each isolate showed more or less similar microscopic characteristics. A representative strain VBAM1, isolated from a severely infected jackfruit was identified as Rhizopus stolonifer by 28S rDNA sequence homology. Increased reducing sugar content in pectin broth indicates pectinase production by the pathogen. The pathogen was not inhibited by ≥500. μg/ml of Mancozeb and Bavistin. Copper oxychloride, Blytone 50% a.i. showed antifungal activity at comparatively lower concentration (200. μg/ml). Two rhizospheric bacterial strains, Burkholderia cenocepacia VBC7 and Pseudomonas poae VBK1, and three different strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis can produce significant zones of inhibition against the pathogen in dual culture overlay plates. They induced mycelia breakage of pathogen as evidenced from scanning electron micrographs. When applied to whole plants, the strains reduced or prevented disease and when applied postharvest to Rhizopus inoculated fruit delayed and/reduced disease incidence. These agents were also re-isolated from the applied surfaces and survived for long time when mixed with suitable carrier base indicating stability in a formulation over time. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Ghosh R.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Barman S.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Khatun J.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory | Mandal N.C.,Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory
Biological Control | Year: 2016

Fungal pathogens causing the leaf spot disease of Aloe vera have been isolated from 40 randomly selected infected leaves, collected from different locations of Birbhum and Burdwan districts of West Bengal. All of the isolates showed similar morphological characteristics and the strain VBAV007, isolated from a severely infected Aloe leaf was identified as Alternaria alternata by D1/D2 region of 28S rRNA gene sequence homology. In addition to the destruction of leaf mesophyll tissues the pathogen also decreases the antimicrobial potential of A. vera gel. The commercially available fungicide mancozeb was effective at low concentration (100 μg/ml) to control the pathogen whereas it can tolerate 1000 μg/ml or more concentrations of bavistin. Two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains, viz. Burkholderia cenocepacia VBC7 and Pseudomonas poae VBK1 were able to produce prominent zones of inhibition against the pathogen in dual culture overlay plates. 89.3 ± 1.22% and 81.5 ± 2.67% inhibitions of conidial germination of the pathogen were noticed in the presence of cell free supernatant of VBK1 and VBC7 respectively. Radial growth assay also suggested prominent growth inhibition of VBAV007 by biocontrol strains. They induce mycelial breakage of pathogen as evidenced by scanning electron micrographs. Greenhouse challenge experiments also suggested excellent capabilities of biocontrol agents to reduce disease severity in good measure even after exposure to high concentration (3.1 × 104 conidia/ml) of pathogenic spores. During in vivo field experiments 54.25 ± 3.55% disease severity was observed for untreated plants, whereas only 11.69 ± 1.25% and 15.22 ± 2.64% disease severities were noticed in plants treated with VBK1 and VBC7 respectively. Since biocontrol organisms have the potential to decrease the disease severity, they also help to maintain the good health as well as antimicrobial potential of A. vera plants. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

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