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Rotselaar, Belgium

Frentz D.,Rotterdam University | Boucher C.A.B.,Rotterdam University | Boucher C.A.B.,University Utrecht | Assel M.,University of Stuttgart | And 18 more authors.

Background: Several decision support systems have been developed to interpret HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping results. This study compares the ability of the most commonly used systems (ANRS, Rega, and Stanford's HIVdb) to predict virological outcome at 12, 24, and 48 weeks. Methodology/Principal Findings: Included were 3763 treatment-change episodes (TCEs) for which a HIV-1 genotype was available at the time of changing treatment with at least one follow-up viral load measurement. Genotypic susceptibility scores for the active regimens were calculated using scores defined by each interpretation system. Using logistic regression, we determined the association between the genotypic susceptibility score and proportion of TCEs having an undetectable viral load (<50 copies/ml) at 12 (8-16) weeks (2152 TCEs), 24 (16-32) weeks (2570 TCEs), and 48 (44-52) weeks (1083 TCEs). The Area under the ROC curve was calculated using a 10-fold cross-validation to compare the different interpretation systems regarding the sensitivity and specificity for predicting undetectable viral load. The mean genotypic susceptibility score of the systems was slightly smaller for HIVdb, with 1.92±1.17, compared to Rega and ANRS, with 2.22±1.09 and 2.23±1.05, respectively. However, similar odds ratio's were found for the association between each-unit increase in genotypic susceptibility score and undetectable viral load at week 12; 1.6 [95% confidence interval 1.5-1.7] for HIVdb, 1.7 [1.5-1.8] for ANRS, and 1.7 [1.9-1.6] for Rega. Odds ratio's increased over time, but remained comparable (odds ratio's ranging between 1.9-2.1 at 24 weeks and 1.9-2.2 at 48 weeks). The Area under the curve of the ROC did not differ between the systems at all time points; p = 0.60 at week 12, p = 0.71 at week 24, and p = 0.97 at week 48. Conclusions/Significance: Three commonly used HIV drug resistance interpretation systems ANRS, Rega and HIVdb predict virological response at 12, 24, and 48 weeks, after change of treatment to the same extent. © 2010 Frentz et al. Source

Kroneman A.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Vennema H.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Deforche K.,Mybiodata | Avoort H.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology

Background: Molecular techniques are established as routine in virological laboratories and virus typing through (partial) sequence analysis is increasingly common. Quality assurance for the use of typing data requires harmonization of genotype nomenclature, and agreement on target genes, depending on the level of resolution required, and robustness of methods. Objective: To develop and validate web-based open-access typing-tools for enteroviruses and noroviruses. Study design: An automated web-based typing algorithm was developed, starting with BLAST analysis of the query sequence against a reference set of sequences from viruses in the family Picornaviridae or Caliciviridae. The second step is phylogenetic analysis of the query sequence and a sub-set of the reference sequences, to assign the enterovirus type or norovirus genotype and/or variant, with profile alignment, construction of phylogenetic trees and bootstrap validation. Typing is performed on VP1 sequences of Human enterovirus A to D, and ORF1 and ORF2 sequences of genogroup I and II noroviruses. For validation, we used the tools to automatically type sequences in the RIVM and CDC enterovirus databases and the FBVE norovirus database. Results: Using the typing-tools, 785(99%) of 795 Enterovirus VP1 sequences, and 8154(98.5%) of 8342 norovirus sequences were typed in accordance with previously used methods. Subtyping into variants was achieved for 4439(78.4%) of 5838 NoV GII.4 sequences. Discussion and conclusions: The online typing-tools reliably assign genotypes for enteroviruses and noroviruses. The use of phylogenetic methods makes these tools robust to ongoing evolution. This should facilitate standardized genotyping and nomenclature in clinical and public health laboratories, thus supporting inter-laboratory comparisons. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Libin P.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Beheydt G.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Deforche K.,Mybiodata | Imbrechts S.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | And 33 more authors.

RegaDB is a free and open source data management and analysis environment for infectious diseases. RegaDB allows clinicians to store, manage and analyse patient data, including viral genetic sequences. Moreover, RegaDB provides researchers with a mechanism to collect data in a uniform format and offers them a canvas to make newly developed bioinformatics tools available to clinicians and virologists through a user friendly interface. © 2013 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

Pineda-Pena A.-C.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Pineda-Pena A.-C.,El Rosario University | Faria N.R.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Imbrechts S.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Background: To investigate differences in pathogenesis, diagnosis and resistance pathways between HIV-1 subtypes, an accurate subtyping tool for large datasets is needed. We aimed to evaluate the performance of automated subtyping tools to classify the different subtypes and circulating recombinant forms using pol, the most sequenced region in clinical practice. We also present the upgraded version 3 of the Rega HIV subtyping tool (REGAv3). Methodology: HIV-1 pol sequences (PR. +. RT) for 4674 patients retrieved from the Portuguese HIV Drug Resistance Database, and 1872 pol sequences trimmed from full-length genomes retrieved from the Los Alamos database were classified with statistical-based tools such as COMET, jpHMM and STAR; similarity-based tools such as NCBI and Stanford; and phylogenetic-based tools such as REGA version 2 (REGAv2), REGAv3, and SCUEAL. The performance of these tools, for pol, and for PR and RT separately, was compared in terms of reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity with respect to the gold standard which was manual phylogenetic analysis of the pol region. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for subtypes B and C was more than 96% for seven tools, but was variable for other subtypes such as A, D, F and G. With regard to the most common circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), the sensitivity and specificity for CRF01_AE was ~99% with statistical-based tools, with phylogenetic-based tools and with Stanford, one of the similarity based tools. CRF02_AG was correctly identified for more than 96% by COMET, REGAv3, Stanford and STAR. All the tools reached a specificity of more than 97% for most of the subtypes and the two main CRFs (CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG). Other CRFs were identified only by COMET, REGAv2, REGAv3, and SCUEAL and with variable sensitivity. When analyzing sequences for PR and RT separately, the performance for PR was generally lower and variable between the tools. Similarity and statistical-based tools were 100% reproducible, but this was lower for phylogenetic-based tools such as REGA (~99%) and SCUEAL (~96%). Conclusions: REGAv3 had an improved performance for subtype B and CRF02_AG compared to REGAv2 and is now able to also identify all epidemiologically relevant CRFs. In general the best performing tools, in alphabetical order, were COMET, jpHMM, REGAv3, and SCUEAL when analyzing pure subtypes in the pol region, and COMET and REGAv3 when analyzing most of the CRFs. Based on this study, we recommend to confirm subtyping with 2 well performing tools, and be cautious with the interpretation of short sequences. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Sangeda R.Z.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Theys K.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Beheydt G.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Rhee S.-Y.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | And 23 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution

We previously modeled the in vivo evolution of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) under drug selective pressure from cross-sectional viral sequences. These fitness landscapes (FLs) were made by using first a Bayesian network (BN) to map epistatic substitutions, followed by scaling the fitness landscape based on an HIV evolution simulator trying to evolve the sequences from treatment naïve patients into sequences from patients failing treatment.In this study, we compared four FLs trained with different sequence populations. Epistatic interactions were learned from three different cross-sectional BNs, trained with sequence from patients experienced with indinavir (BNT), all protease inhibitors (PIs) (BNP) or all PI except indinavir (BND). Scaling the fitness landscape was done using cross-sectional data from drug naïve and indinavir experienced patients (Fcross using BNT) and using longitudinal sequences from patients failing indinavir (FlongT using BNT, FlongP using BNP, FlongD using BND). Evaluation to predict the failing sequence and therapy outcome was performed on independent sequences of patients on indinavir. Parameters included estimated fitness (LogF), the number of generations (GF) or mutations (MF) to reach the fitness threshold (average fitness when a major resistance mutation appeared), the number of generations (GR) or mutations (MR) to reach a major resistance mutation and compared to genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) from Rega and HIVdb algorithms.In pairwise FL comparisons we found significant correlation between fitness values for individual sequences, and this correlation improved after correcting for the subtype. Furthermore, FLs could predict the failing sequence under indinavir-containing combinations. At 12 and 48. weeks, all parameters from all FLs and indinavir GSS (both for Rega and HIVdb) were predictive of therapy outcome, except MR for FlongT and FlongP. The fitness landscapes have similar predictive power for treatment response under indinavir-containing regimen as standard rules-based algorithms, and additionally allow predicting genetic evolution under indinavir selective pressure. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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