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Insein, Myanmar

Thant K.H.,Myanma Agriculture Service | Thant K.H.,Kasetsart University | Duangpatra J.,Kasetsart University | Romkaew J.,Kasetsart University
Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science | Year: 2010

Sesame is a small-seeded oil crop for which a proper method of testing seed vigor has not been successfully developed. This study was conducted to identify the appropriate combination of temperature and time for accelerated aging vigor testing of sesame. Five seed lots of sesame were used: KU 18 (2006), CPlus 2 (2006), KU 18 (2007), and CPlus 2 (2007), grown at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center and KU 18 (Contract Farmer 2007), grown by a contract farmer. A completely randomized factorial design with four replications was used. The accelerated aging test was carried out at five different temperatures: 40, 41, 42, 43 and 44°C with six duration periods of 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hr and a relative humidity of 100%. The results showed that accelerated aging under conditions of 42-43°C at 100 % RH for 120 hr were appropriate for an accelerated aging test for seed vigor in sesame. Source

Maung Z.T.Z.,Myanma Agriculture Service | Maung Z.T.Z.,Catholic University of Leuven | Win P.P.,Myanma Agriculture Service | Win P.P.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

Soil and root samples of the short crop cycle duration rice variety Yadanartoe were collected at 10-days intervals, starting at 20 days after transplanting until 20 days after harvest, from September 2008 until January 2009, to study the population dynamics of Hirschmanniella oryzae on (rainfed) monsoon rice. Plant growth stages, the ambient air and soil temperature, rainfall and relative humidity during the sampling period were noted. The soil type is clay and has a pH of 5.1. In the roots, three nematode population density peaks were observed during the sampling period: at the maximum tillering stage, at the milky grain stage, and between harvest and 10 days after harvest. The highest peak (483 H. oryzae/g roots) was observed at the milky grain stage. The lowest root population density (46 H. oryzae/g roots) was found at harvesting. Population densities in the soil followed more or less the same trend as in the roots. After harvesting, the soil population density increased. During our observation, we did not find any effects of environmental conditions on the population densities of H. oryzae. However, it was found that the population dynamics of H. oryzae were influenced by the plant growth stage. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Win P.P.,Myanma Agriculture Service | Kyi P.P.,Myanma Agriculture Service | De Waele D.,Catholic University of Leuven | De Waele D.,Ghent University | De Waele D.,International Rice Research Institute
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Two surveys were carried out during 2009. The first survey was during the dry summer season (mid-January to mid-May) in 450 rice fields from ten regions representing the summer-irrigated, lowland rice ecosystem in the lower Ayeyarwady delta area of Myanmar. The second survey was during the rainy (monsoon) season (mid-May to mid-October) in 102 rice fields from three regions representing the rainfed upland rice ecosystem in the northern hilly area of Myanmar. Soil and root samples were collected from 552 rice fields from 15 locally cultivated rice varieties in lowland and upland rice ecosystems. The frequency of occurrence of Meloidogyne graminicola was significantly (P∈<∈0.05) higher in the lowland compared with the upland rice ecosystem (78 vs 9%, respectively). On average, both the population density and the root galling index of M. graminicola in the lowland rice (289 J2/g root and 4.1, respectively) were significantly (p∈<∈0.05) higher than in the upland rice (4 J2/g root and 1.2, respectively). In lowland rice, the frequency of occurrence of M. graminicola was significantly (p∈<∈0.05) higher in the delayed irrigation compared with the early irrigation (87 vs 54%, respectively). Similarly, both the average nematode population density and mean galling index in delayed irrigation (347 J2/g root and 4.5, respectively) were significantly (p∈<∈0.05) higher than in early irrigation (46 J2/g root and 1.2, respectively). M. graminicola is the major pest of the summer-irrigated, lowland rice ecosystem in Myanmar. Further research is needed for development of integrated pest management technologies to maintain a profitable rice industry in Myanmar. © 2011 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. Source

Maung Z.T.Z.,Myanma Agriculture Service | Maung Z.T.Z.,Catholic University of Leuven | Kyi P.P.,Myanma Agriculture Service | Myint Y.Y.,Yezin Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

During May-October 2007, soil and root samples from 539 fields were collected from 11 monsoon rice varieties in 12 regions in Myanmar. All regions surveyed and 90% of fields sampled were infested with the rice root nematode Hirschmanniella oryzae. The average H. oryzae population was 10/100 mL soil and 419/20 g roots respectively. In 6.9% of the fields sampled 50 H. oryzae/g root were found. The average root population densities were the highest (640/20 g roots) in Taungpyan variety and the lowest (155/20 g roots) in Immayebaw variety. The lowest soil and the second-lowest root populations of H. oryzae were observed in Shwethweyin which may indicate that this rice variety is less susceptible to H. oryzae. Among three cropping sequences, the highest frequency of occurrence (94%) was found in the rice-rice cropping sequence. Based on the prominence value (a combination of the frequency of occurrence and abundance) of H. oryzae, Hlaingtharyar was the most infested region where susceptible rice varieties are grown and rice-rice cropping sequence is practiced. The rice production in this region may be the most at risk of suffering important yield losses due to H. oryzae. Source

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