Oppenheimer J.,MWH Americas Inc. |
Eaton A.,MWH Laboratories |
Badruzzaman M.,MWH Americas Inc. |
Haghani A.W.,MWH Laboratories |
And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2011
Urban watersheds are susceptible to numerous pollutant sources and the identification of source-specific indicators can provide a beneficial tool in the identification and control of input loads, often times needed for a water body to achieve designated beneficial uses. Differentiation of wastewater flows from other urban wet weather flows is needed in order to more adequately address such environmental concerns as water body nutrient impairment and potable source water contamination. Anthropogenic compounds previously suggested as potential wastewater indicators include caffeine, carbamazepine, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, and TCEP. This paper compares the suitability of a variety of anthropogenic compounds to sucralose, an artificial sweetener, as wastewater indicators by examining occurrence data for 85 trace organic compounds in samples of wastewater effluents, source waters with known wastewater point source inputs, and sources without known wastewater point source inputs. The findings statistically demonstrate the superior performance of sucralose as a potential indicator of domestic wastewater input in the U.S. While several compounds were detected in all of the wastewater effluent samples, only sucralose was consistently detected in the source waters with known wastewater discharges, absent in the sources without wastewater influence, and consistently present in septic samples. All of the other compounds were prone to either false negatives or false positives in the environment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Eaton A.,MWH Laboratories |
Cha Y.,MWH Laboratories |
Geddes L.,MWH Laboratories |
Morley K.M.,AWWA Government Affairs Office
Journal - American Water Works Association | Year: 2011
A blind interlaboratory study of radium-226 (Ra-226), radium-228 (Ra-228), and gross alpha and beta activity was conducted among five multistate certified laboratories to examine concerns regarding analytical variability for compliance with the revised Radionuclides Rule. Results of the interlaboratory study demonstrated that although Ra-226 and gross beta measurements appeared to be both accurate and precise, even at low levels, Ra-228 and gross alpha measurements were much less robust both within and among laboratories, which could result in potentially incorrect compliance decisions. There are several steps that utilities can take to improve reliability of compliance data, including mandating specific quality control (QC) steps by laboratories and ensuring that they follow the QC guidance in the US Environmental Protection Agency's laboratory certification manual and the Multi-Agency Radiological Laboratory Analytical Protocols Manual, even though these may not always be enforced by laboratory certification authorities.
Botten J.,University of Vermont |
Whitton J.L.,Scripps Research Institute |
Barrowman P.,MWH Laboratories |
Sidney J.,La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2010
Arenaviruses cause severe human disease ranging from aseptic meningitis following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection to hemorrhagic fever syndromes following infection with Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Lassa virus (LASV), Machupo virus (MACV), Sabia virus (SABV), or Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV). Cellular immunity, chiefly the CD8+ T-cell response, plays a critical role in providing protective immunity following infection with the Old World arenaviruses LASV and LCMV. In the current study, we evaluated whether HLA class I-restricted epitopes that are cross-reactive among pathogenic arenaviruses could be identified for the purpose of developing an epitope-based vaccination approach that would cross-protect against multiple arenaviruses. We were able to identify a panel of HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides derived from the same region of the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) of LASV (GPC spanning residues 441 to 449 [GPC 441-449]), LCMV (GPC447-455), JUNV (GPC 429-437), MACV (GPC444-452), GTOV (GPC427-435), and WWAV (GPC428-436) that displayed high-affinity binding to HLA-A*0201 and were recognized by CD8+ T cells in a cross-reactive manner following LCMV infection or peptide immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Immunization of HLA-A*0201 mice with the Old World peptide LASV GPC441-449 or LCMV GPC447-455 induced high-avidity CD8+ T-cell responses that were able to kill syngeneic target cells pulsed with either LASV GPC441-449 or LCMV GPC447-455 in vivo and provided significant protection against viral challenge with LCMV. Through this study, we have demonstrated that HLA class I-restricted, cross-reactive epitopes exist among diverse arenaviruses and that individual epitopes can be utilized as effective vaccine determinants for multiple pathogenic arenaviruses. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.