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Smith L.,MVA Consultancy
Traffic Engineering and Control | Year: 2010

The development of travel plans represents one of several policy initiatives in the area of Travel Demand Management. Many consider the development of a School Travel Plan (STP) as a dynamic-process undertaken by schools that sets out a package of measures to reduce congestion, encourage active travel and to remove the barriers to sustainable-travel for school journeys. The Office for National Statistics (2007) states that the average-length of trips to school has also increased between 1996 and 2006 from 2 to 2.5 kilometers for children aged 5 to 10, and from 4.7 to 4.8 kilometers for those aged 11-16. The 'Travelling to School' initiative is a joint DfT and Department for Education and Skills (DfES) initiative, launched in 2003 with a £50 million fund to boost the production of STPs. Many recognize that a successful STP is dependent on many factors, which include the quality of the initiatives and management-team. Source


Flindell I.,University of Innsbruck | Le Masurier P.,MVA Consultancy | Schreckenberg D.,ZEUS GmbH
42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life | Year: 2013

Government policy makers need to balance the needs and rights of residents in close proximity to airports against the need to meet the ever-increasing demand for air travel. The UK Government has based their understanding of community annoyance on primary research conducted in the UK more than thirty years ago. In this paper, we compare more recent quantitative data against the historic data, and suggest that, using traditional models of aircraft noise annoyance, some adjustments to current noise metrics would seem to be justified in order to better deal with current conditions as they exist today. On the other hand, we have also been investigating alternative qualitative and trading methods of data collection which in many cases have found substantially different results to the current assumed status-quo. The results suggest that standard questionnaires (such as the ISO standard 'annoyance' scales) do not always reflect respondent's underlying attitudes particularly well. In most cases, reported annoyance is not so much determined by the amount of aircraft noise measured using traditional acoustic metrics such as LAeq and Lden, as by a whole range of beliefs and attitudes about the way that the airport operates and engages in meaningful mitigation and compensation programmes. Source


Elliott M.A.,University of Strathclyde | Thomson J.A.,University of Strathclyde | Robertson K.,University of Strathclyde | Stephenson C.,MVA Consultancy | Wicks J.,MVA Consultancy
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

Previous research on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is characterized by cross-sectional tests of the model's proposed causal relationships. In the absence of effective experimental techniques for changing the TPB's cognitive antecedents, the present research aimed to provide a stronger non-experimental test of the model, using causal analyses of two-wave panel data. Two studies of driver behavior were conducted in which naturally occurring within-participant changes in TPB constructs were measured over time, and used to predict corresponding within-participant changes in both intentions and behavior. A two-wave panel design was used in both studies. Study 1 had a one-month gap between baseline and follow-up. At both waves, a convenience sample comprising predominantly university students (N = 135) completed questionnaire measures of all TPB cognitions and behavior (compliance with speed limits in urban areas). Cross-lagged multiple regressions and bootstrapping procedures for testing multiple mediators supported all of the relationships proposed by the TPB. These findings were extended in study 2 using a large, non-student sample of speed limit offenders (N = 1149), a six-month gap between baseline and follow-up, and a larger number of cognitive antecedents. Participants completed postal questionnaires at both waves to measure all cognitions proposed by the two-component TPB, along with moral norm, anticipated regret, self-identity and speeding on urban roads, country roads, and fast dual carriageways or motorways. Changes in instrumental and affective attitude, descriptive norm, self-efficacy, moral norm, anticipated regret and self-identity predicted changes in intention to speed. Changes in intention and self-efficacy predicted behavior-change. Injunctive norm and perceived controllability did not predict intention or behavior-change. Additionally, direct (unhypothesized) relationships with behavior were found for affective attitude, descriptive norm and anticipated regret. The implications of the findings for theory and the development of effective behavior-change interventions are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Matos J.C.B.,University of Southampton | Flindell I.,University of Southampton | Le Masurier P.,MVA Consultancy | Pownall C.,MVA Consultancy
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2013

This paper compares monetary values for aircraft noise disturbance and annoyance derived using hedonic price and stated preference methods in the same sample areas and over the same sampling time periods. The hedonic price method compares house prices in residential areas across a range of aircraft noise sound levels. The statistical power can be compromised by the many other variables which have significant and often greater effects on prices and because only small fractions of the overall housing stock are bought and sold at any one time. The stated preference method on the other hand, by requiring study participants to trade hypothetical money against hypothetical noise, is entirely based on subjective opinion. It seems that neither method is entirely satisfactory, but there are strong positive correlations between the ratios of aggregated stated preference values to weighted average house prices and LAeq, 16. h and similar noise metrics suggesting sufficient underlying similarities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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