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Srinivas M.,MV Jayaram Medical College and Research Hospital | Amogh V.,Christian Medical College | Gautam M.,Bangalore Medical College | Prathyusha I.,Rangaraya Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science | Year: 2016

Objectives: To evaluate diagnostic reliability of the daily use of thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) classification proposed by Kwak et al., in differentiating between a benign and a malignant thyroid lesion, to calculate inter-observer variability in the interpretation of each of the TIRADS ultrasound features and to evaluate role of TIRADS system in reducing unnecessary biopsies of benign lesions. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty-five patients with clinically suspected thyroid lesions during the period from November 1, 2011, to August 31, 2015, were prospectively scanned on gray-scale and Doppler imaging by six radiologists separately. We used GE VOLUSON 730 PRO machine (GE healthcare, Milwaukee, USA) equipped with a 7.5-12 MHz high-frequency linear array transducer with color and power Doppler capability. We evaluated five sonological features: Internal composition, echogenicity, margins, presence and type of calcification, and shape of the lesion. Based on the TIRADS proposed by Kwak et al., we determined categories of the thyroid lesions. The diagnostic performance of TIRADS classification system was evaluated by comparison with the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) reports which were subsequently obtained after taking informed consent from the patients. All follicular neoplasms on FNAC were further followed up with excision biopsy and histology. The cytopathological report was used as the standard final diagnosis for comparison. The P value and odds ratio were determined to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of a particular ultrasound feature was associated with benignity or malignancy in the study population. The risk of malignancy was stratified for each TIRADS category-based on the total number of benign and malignant lesions in that category. Cervical lymph nodes were also evaluated for their size, loss of the central, echogenic hilum, presence of irregular and indistinct margin, microcalcification, and necrotic changes. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was determined separately for each of the five TIRADS malignant features to study the inter-observer agreement. Furthermore, the percentage of benign cases that were accurately determined by TIRADS which could have avoided unnecessary FNAC was determined. Results: The risk of malignancy in TIRADS categories 1 and 2 was found to be 0%, 0.64% in category 3, 4.76% in category 4A, 66.67% in category 4B, 83.33% in category 4C, and 100% in category 5. Out of the five suspicious sonological features, irregular margins showed the highest positive predictive value (95.45%) for malignancy followed by taller than wide shape (92.86%), microcalcifications (66.67%), marked hypoechogenicity (54.55%), and solid composition (48.15%). The specificity of three sonological features (completely cystic structure, hyperechogenicity, and macrocalcification) in classifying a nodule as benign was 100%. Loss of central echogenic hilum, presence of an irregular and indistinct margin, microcalcification and necrosis were found to have sensitivity of 100%, 63.63%, 27.27%, and 9.09%, respectively and specificity of 95.7%, 98.5%, 100%, and 100%, respectively for cervical lymph node to be malignant. The Kappa value for taller than wide shape, microcalcification, marked hypoechogenicity, solid composition, and irregular margins was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1-1), 1.0 (95% CI: 1-1), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82-1), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.64-1), respectively. The estimated decrease in unnecessary FNACs was found to be 43.83-86.30%. Conclusions: TIRADS proposed by Kwak et al., combined with evaluation for sonological features of malignant lymph nodes is a valuable, safe, widely available, and easily reproducible imaging tool to stratify the risk of a thyroid lesion and helps in precluding unnecessary FNACs in a significant number of patients. TIRADS features convincingly show comparable results in the interpretation of TIRADS features more so, in the hands of radiologists experienced in thyroid imaging. © 2016 Journal of Clinical Imaging Science | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

PubMed | Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital, MV Jayaram Medical College and Research Hospital and Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College
Type: | Journal: Polish journal of radiology | Year: 2016

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stages of the pork tapeworm, An 11-year-old male presented with a painless, subcutaneous swelling over the left anterior chest wall for the last 2 months. High resolution ultrasound showed a well-defined, thin-walled, cystic lesion with an eccentric, echogenic focus in the subcutaneous plane. On change of the posture of the patient, this focus showed mobility. The hypoechoic area surrounding this cyst showed significant exudative fluid collection with diffuse, floating echoes and thin, incomplete internal septations. The adjacent soft tissues were thickened and irregular, suggestive of edema. This was followed by an excision biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed cysticercus cellulose parasite with an extensive mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in the surrounding tissue. The patient was also administered oral antihelminthic therapy. Repeat ultrasound examination at the end of this management regimen showed complete healing with no e/o any remnant or recurrent cystic lesion, abscess or edema in the subcutaneous plane.Subcutaneous cysticercosis is a relatively rare form of cysticercosis but should always be born in mind during the evaluation of subcutaneous swellings. High resolution ultrasound is a valuable, safe, nonionizing, cost-effective, widely-available, and easily-reproducible imaging tool for diagnosis of subcutaneous cysticercosis. There is a wide spectrum of ultrasound patterns of subcutaneous cysticercosis. In classic cases with a cyst containing a scolex within and with a surrounding abscess, high resolution ultrasound should always be the primary mode of diagnosis, thus avoiding unnecessary fine needle aspiration cytologies.

Aneja A.,MV Jayaram Medical College and Research Hospital | Kumar Rajanna D.,MV Jayaram Medical College and Research Hospital | Narasimha Reddy V.,MV Jayaram Medical College and Research Hospital | Retnam Mayilvaganan K.,MV Jayaram Medical College and Research Hospital | Pujar P.,MV Jayaram Medical College and Research Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Conjoined twins are a rare entity. Only few cases have been reported in the medical literature. They are a rare and exclusive type of monozygotic twins. They are caused by a faulty division of the embryonic disk. Due to high post-natal morbidity and mortality, an early pre-natal diagnosis is a must. All the monozygotic twins should be carefully screened for conjoinnment and if it is present, the type and the degree of sharing of the foetal organs should be delineated. There are many associated anomalies, of which congenital heart defects are the major prognostic factors. Here, we are reporting a case of thoraco-omphalopagus in which there was sharing of the foetal heart, liver and the intestinal loops.

PubMed | Mv Jayaram Medical College And Research Hospital
Type: | Journal: Polish journal of radiology | Year: 2016

A watering can penis secondary to penile tuberculosis is an extremely rare clinical entity. Retrograde Urethrography - Voiding Cystourethrography evaluation of the urethra and the urinary bladder plays a very important role in the diagnostics as well as further management of the urethral abnormalities. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case in literature where a watering can penis was noted secondary to penile TB. This is also the first documented case of watering can penis as a consequence of venereal transmission of TB.A 50-year-old male presented with multiple discharging sinuses along the penis. RGU revealed multiple, contrast-filled, narrow, irregular, fistulous tracts arising from the pendulous part of the anterior urethra. This distal segment of the pendulous part of the anterior urethra also showed significant distortion and irregular, beaded narrowing. VCUG showed a markedly-contracted and small-capacity urinary bladder with a thickened, irregular and edematous wall with multiple hypertrophied trabeculae along its walls. The patient was administered anti-tubercular treatment. At the end of this treatment regimen, a repeat RGU-VCUG will be performed and decision regarding urethroplasty and further management will be planned depending upon the presence of any remaining fistulas or strictures involving the urethra.Watering can penis as a result of penile TB is a very rare clinical entity. The differential diagnoses of a watering can penis should be kept in mind in the evaluation of these patients. RGU and VCUG evaluation is an important conventional imaging modality used in the evaluation of urethral strictures and fistulas in case of watering can penis.

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