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Muzaffarnagar, India

Yadav A.,Muzaffarnagar Medical College
The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences

Majority of the qualified medical practitioners in the country are in the private sector and more than half of patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek treatment from them. The present study was conducted with the objective of assessing the treatment modalities in pulmonary tuberculosis by the private physicians in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional study was carried out covering all the private physicians (graduates and postgraduates in Medicine and Chest Diseases) registered under the Indian Medical Association, Meerut Branch (n = 154). The physicians were interviewed by a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire about the treatment modalities practiced by them. Only 43.5% private physicians had attended any Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) training in the past five years. Only 33.1% of them were aware of the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Fifty-three different regimens were used to treat the patients. Majority of physicians (76%) prescribed daily regimens while 24% administered both daily and intermittent treatment. None of the private physicians prescribed exclusive intermittent regimen. Eighty-seven different treatment regimens were used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) with none of them prescribing standard treatment under RNTCP. As majority of private practitioners do not follow RNTCP guidelines for treating TB, there is an urgent need for their continued education in this area. Source

Goyal S.,Muzaffarnagar Medical College | Raju R.,MM Institute of Medical science and Research | Yadav S.,MM Institute of Medical science and Research
Journal of the Pancreas

Context Pancreatic pseudocyst of gastrohepatic or hepatoduodenal ligament and of liver is rare entity. Probably, pancreatic pseudocyst ascends via these ligaments to liver due to complex attachment of peritoneum. Very few cases have been reported in literature. Case report Hereby, we report a case of pancreatic pseudocyst of hepatoduodenal ligament in patient who presented with pain and lump in epigastric region. Conclusion This is an extrapancreatic extension of pancreatic pseudocyst and a high suspicion of this cyst (gastrohepatic ligament cyst) should be kept in mind as differential diagnosis of epigastric mass. Source

Sharma M.,Jaswant Rai Speciality Hospital | Rameshbabu C.S.,Muzaffarnagar Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology

In patients with portal cavernoma cholangiopathy (PCC), appearance and location of collateral channels depends on extent and location of occlusive thrombus in the porto-mesenteric venous system. If the porto-mesenteric venous system is occluded near the formation of portal vein, blood tends to flow through collateral channels that form varices in and around the common bile duct. Though endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is considered the investigative modality of choice for evaluating common bile duct obstruction, its role in evaluating collateral pathways in and around the common bile duct is poorly defined. This article reviews the anatomy, genesis and appearance of these collateral pathways in PCC. EUS identifies different layers of the common bile duct (CBD) wall and, in PCC, where varices are in close contact with or part of these different layers, can establish the relationship between them. Thus, EUS appears to be the investigation of choice for tracing the origin and course of collaterals in PCC. Careful study of varices in the common bile duct wall prior to ERCP for bile duct stones or biliary strictures may help to plan the procedure and to manage anticipated complications such as hemobilia. © 2013 INASL. Source

Ramesh Babu C.S.,Muzaffarnagar Medical College | Sharma M.,Jaswant Rai Speciality Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology

Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma. © 2013 INASL. Source

Sharma M.,Jaswant Rai Speciality Hospital | Rameshbabu C.S.,Muzaffarnagar Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology

Presence of portosystemic collateral veins (PSCV) is common in portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Physiologically, normal portosystemic anastomoses exist which exhibit hepatofugal flow. With the development of portal hypertension, transmission of backpressure leads to increased flow in these patent normal portosystemic anastomoses. In extrahepatic portal vein obstruction collateral circulation develops in a hepatopetal direction and portoportal pathways are frequently found. The objective of this review is to illustrate the various PSCV and portoportal collateral vein pathways pertinent to portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis and EHPVO. © 2012 INASL. Source

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