Time filter

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Rajalaxmi S.,Paavai Engineering College | Nirmala S.,Muthayammal Engineering College
Journal of Digital Imaging | Year: 2014

A new filter has been proposed with the aim of eliminating speckle noise from 2D echocardiography images. This speckle noise has to be eliminated to avoid the pseudo prediction of the underlying anatomical facts. The proposed filter uses entropy parameter to measure the disorganized occurrence of noise pixel in each row and column and to increase the image visibility. Straight kernels with 3 pixels each are chosen for the filtering process, and the filter is slided over the image to eliminate speckle. The peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is obtained in the range of 147 dB, and the root mean square error (RMSE) is very low of approximately 0.15. The proposed filter is implemented on 36 echocardiography images, and the filter has the competence to illuminate the actual anatomical facts without degrading the edges. © 2014, Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine.

Madheswaran M.,Muthayammal Engineering College
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing | Year: 2013

The improved Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) using the Hybrid Wave Pipelining (HWP) technique and COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm for Software Defined Radio (SDR) is presented in this paper. In order to achieve high throughput, the hybrid wave pipelining technique is adopted. The HWP can be used to speed up the circuits without insertion of storage elements. The CORDIC algorithm is used for phase-to-amplitude conversion and utilized for dynamic transformation rather than Read Only Memory (ROM) static addressing. The frequency resolution and phase resolution are achieved as 0.023 Hz and 0.088 degree, respectively, at the maximum operating frequency of 199.288 MHz for the proposed DDS architecture. The spectral purity of the proposed design has been improved to 114 dBc with a throughput of 94 %. This paper is focused on the design and implementation of DDS using hybrid wave pipelining with CORDIC approach to target on Xilinx Spartan 3 (XC3S400-5PQ208) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a speed grade of -5. The proposed DDS design reduces the gate count from 49.4 % to 18.2 % as compared to the conventional pipelined Read Only Memory Look Up Table (ROMLUT) DDS method. The throughput of the proposed method has been improved from 78 % to 94 % and 55 % of total power reduction as compared with conventional DDS. The performance of the improved DDS architecture is compared with several existing DDS architectures and it is found that the present design is outperforming and can be used for software defined radios. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Kumar T.R.S.,Muthayammal Engineering College | Venkatesh C.,EBET Group of Institutions
IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility | Year: 2011

While designing the metallic enclosure for the electromagnetic shielding of electronic circuits, apertures on the enclosure walls become unavoidable for the purpose of signal cabling and ventilation. The Conventional Enclosure design involves a repeated procedure where the hole position and locations are varied until the Shielding Effectiveness (SE) requirements met. In this paper Double Layer Frequency Selective Surface (DLFSS) is used to construct the walls of the SMPS Enclosure which involves simple procedure. The FSS constructed from Greek Cross type apertures, etched on the conducting walls without any dielectric substrate (to enable ventilation) act as a spatial band-pass filter. Even though the design objective of the EM Shielding Enclosure is all-stop filter characteristics, the ventilation requirement impose the enclosure to allow certain band of EMI to pass. So the DLFSS is designed to pass a band of EMI at 15GHz which is acceptable to satisfy the EMC and ventilation requirements. DLFSS and Conventional SMPS enclosures are modelled and shielding effectiveness is calculated and compared. © 2011 IEEE.

Anitha R.U.,Muthayammal Engineering College | Kamalakkannan P.,Salem College
Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Informatics and Mobile Engineering, PRIME 2013 | Year: 2013

Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs) are a current encouraged technology which is used to help many civilian, military and industrial services. Energy saving is the critical issue while designing the wireless sensor networks. In order to enhance the network life time there are many routing protocols have been developed. One of these is clustering based in which network is partitioned into small clusters and each cluster is examined and controlled by a single node called Cluster Head (CH). In this paper, we propose an enhanced algorithm for Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy-Mobile (LEACH-M) protocol called ECBR-MWSN which is Enhanced cluster based routing protocol for mobile nodes in wireless sensor network. ECBR-MWSN protocol selects the CHs using the parameters of highest residual energy, lowest Mobility and least Distance from the Base Station. The BS periodically runs the proposed algorithm to select new CHs after a certain period of time. It is aimed to prolonging the lifetime of the sensor networks by balancing the energy consumption of the nodes. Then compare the performance of our proposed algorithm with the cluster based protocols using ns2 simulator. The simulation result indicates that the proposed algorithm gives better performance in terms of higher packet delivery ratio, throughput, energy consumption, routing overhead, and delay. © 2013 IEEE.

Padmanabhan K.,Muthayammal Engineering College | Kamalakkannan P.,Government of Tamilnadu
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2011

Recent developments in the sensor networks field initiated for designing new protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The routing protocols designed for wireless sensor networks cannot be used for other adhoc networks due to its battery powered nodes. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. The energy efficiency is an important issue in WSN. Routing protocols makes the transmission in an efficient manner and ensures reliable delivery over multiple-hop relay in WSN. This paper analyses the routing protocols and its classifications. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2011.

Anitha R.U.,Muthayammal Engineering College | Kadhar Nawaz G.M.,Salem College
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2014

In Wireless sensor networks, existing routing algorithms assumed that the sensor nodes are stationary. But some applications of WSN should poses mobile sensor nodes are mixed with fixed sensor nodes in the same networks. So Mobility is the key factor for the WSN. When mobility is functioned there should be performance degradation and also the sensor devices are resource restricted, so that the networks exposed to different types of attacks. The tradition security mechanisms are not suitable for the Mobile wireless sensor networks since the resource limitation in the sensor node. Especially the routing security is important for the sensor networks. Because of the intermediate node need access the contents of the data message, there are many attacks towards the wireless sensor network routing protocol and the traditional end-to-end security mechanism could not do anything. Therefore, Mobility and Security are the challenging task in MWSN. In this paper, we propose Secure, Energy Efficient and Reliable Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Network (SEER-MWSN) for considering the security and mobility as a major constraints. It provides energy efficiency as well as sufficient security to the mobile sensor networks. Simulation results show that the SEER-MWSN protocol has less Energy dissipated and more network lifetime, Packet Delivery Ratio, Throughput and Delay than the existing LEACHMobile and LEACH-Mobile-Enhanced protocols. © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Azhagushanmugam S.J.,Muthayammal Engineering College | Suriyanarayanan N.,Government College of Technology, Coimbatore | Jayaprakash R.,Anna University
Physics Procedia | Year: 2013

The Powders of Ni-Zn ferrite having the chemical formula Ni (0.6) Zn (0.4) Fe2O4 were synthesized by using chemical coprecipitation method and followed by heat treatment at 130°C, 600°C & 900°C. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were carried out to investigate structural and chemical aspects of Ni-Zn ferrite. The cubic spinel structure in single phase has been confirmed by X ray diffraction. The average crystallite size was calculated from the line broadening in XRD pattern. The sizes of the particles were increased with sintering temperature. The micro structural features of the samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The IR Spectra measured in the range of 4000-400 cm-1 exhibit symmetric stretching mode of Fe2O4 and ZnO4 tetrahedral at 669.7 cm-1 and 545.6 cm-1. © 2013 The Authors.

Prakash R.,Muthayammal Engineering College | Anita R.,Indian Institute of Road and Transport Technology
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2012

The aim of this paper is to design a Fuzzy Logic Controller-based Model Reference Adaptive Controller. It consists of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) along with a conventional Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) scheme. The idea is to control the plant by conventional MR AC with a suitable single reference model, and at the same time control the plant by FLC. In the conventional MR AC scheme, the controller is designed to realize plant output converges to reference model output based on the plant which is linear. This scheme is for controlling linear plant effectively with unknown parameters. However, using MR AC scheme to control the nonlinear system at real time is difficult. In this paper, it is proposed to incorporate an FLC in MR AC scheme to overcome the problem. The control input is given by the sum of the output of conventional MRAC and the output of FLC. The rules for the FLC are obtained from the conventional PI Controller. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated by simulations. The proposed Fuzzy Logic Controller-based Model Reference Adaptive Controller (FLC-MRAC) can significantly improve the system's behavior and force the system to follow the reference model and minimize the error between the model and plant output. © 2012 ICIC International.

Nagarajan C.,Bharath University | Madheswaran M.,Muthayammal Engineering College
Iranian Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering | Year: 2012

This paper presents a Closed Loop control of CLL-T (Capacitor Inductor Inductor). Series Parallel Resonant Converter (SPRC) has been simulated and the performance is analysised. A three element CLL-T SPRC working under load independent operation (voltage type and current type load) is presented in this paper. The Steady State Stability Analysis of CLL-T SPRC has been developed using State Space Technique and the regulation of output voltage is done by using Fuzzy controller. The simulation study indicates the superiority of fuzzy control over the conventional control methods. The proposed approach is expected to provide better voltage regulation for dynamic load conditions. A prototype 300 W, 100 kHz converter is designed and built to experimentally demonstrate, dynamic and steady state performance for the CLL-T SPRC are compared from the simulation studies.

Thanigaivelan R.,Muthayammal Engineering College | Arunachalam R.M.,Salem College
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2010

Miniaturization in all emerging areas is rapidly increasing. To meet this need, micromachining is considered as one of the key technologies for the production of miniaturized parts and components. Among the various capable processes, electrochemical micromachining is considered for its advantages of accuracy, no electrode wear, and various ranges of materials that can be machined. An experimental set-up for Electrochemical Micromachining (EMM) is developed with constant gap control system. Experimental studies on the influence of shape of tool electrode tip on machining rate and overcut for 304 Stainless Steel has been presented. The tool electrode tips of different shapes like flat, conical with rounded and truncated cone were used for this study. The experimental results show that the truncated cone tip improves the machining rate by 4.4 times and conical with rounded tip reduces the overcut by 1.7 times when compared with the flat electrode tip at a machining voltage of 10V, pulse on time of 15ms, 50Hz frequency, and 0.29mole/l electrolyte concentration. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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