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Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue, France

Olayemi A.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Oyeyiola A.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Antunes A.,University of Porto | Bonillo C.,Musum National dHistoire Naturelle | And 2 more authors.
Wildlife Research | Year: 2011

Context Following recent socioeconomic transformations in western and central Africa, the volume of bushmeat hunting, a traditional source of proteins and revenue for rural populations, has reached unsustainable levels. The morphological identification of species sold on bushmeat market stalls may be challenging because of the presence of cryptic taxa and smoked or processed carcasses. Aims To assess the contribution of DNA-typing to traditional bushmeat surveys. We conducted a case study at a roadside bushmeat market in Asejire, south-western Nigeria, to characterise the mammalian diversity and sketch out the dynamics of the bushmeat trade. Methods We generated a 402-bp Cytochrome b fragment using a 'universal' mitochondrial primer pair that successfully amplified across five mammalian orders, and used assignment procedures to assess the taxonomic identification of the traded species. We combined DNA-typing with morphological-based market surveys and questionnaires to half (n≤20) of the market stakeholders. Key results Our combined morphologicalDNA-based survey revealed a total of 17 species, representing seven mammalian orders (Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Hyracoidea, Carnivora, Pholidota and Artiodactyla). DNA-typing allowed identifying the Walter's duiker, a cryptic, newly described species from the Dahomey Gap, and diagnosing an unidentified primate as the white-throated monkey, Cercopithecus erythrogaster, a species of high conservation concern in Nigeria. K2P pairwise genetic distances among all species exceeded the 11% threshold, indicative of species-level distinction. The most hunted species were the Walter's duiker and, to a lesser extent, the greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus. Questionnaires to traders revealed that the Asejire roadside market was a straightforward traderhunter system centralising off-takes from distant hunting sites. Conclusions We showed how mitochondrial DNA-typing combined with assignment procedures improved the characterisation of the mammalian diversity sold on bushmeat markets. The hunted mammalian community consisted of versatile, small- to medium-sized secondary forest species characteristic of the Dahomey Gap assemblage; their sustainable management is in doubt because of the lack of conservation and health awareness within the traders' community. Implications Given the utility of mitochondrial DNA-typing in identifying species sold in bushmeat markets, we argue in favour of multi-entry investigations to reach a comprehensive characterisation of the bushmeat trade. The building of a web-accessible mtDNA database covering the spectrum of the species hunted for bushmeat would appear to be a valuable diagnostic tool that may help Nigeria and neighbouring countries to set up a rigorous monitoring of wildlife extirpation. © CSIRO 2011. Source

Sun D.,Hebei University | Zhu M.-S.,Hebei University | Loureno W.R.,Musum National dHistoire Naturelle
Journal of Arachnology | Year: 2010

A new species, Mesobuthus bolensis from the Province of Xinjiang, in the Western region of China, is described. The new species can be defined by a densely granular carapace; carinae, granulation, and metasomal segment V without any dark pigmentation; carinae of carapace and pedipalp patella dispersively granular. Furthermore, restudy of the characters of Mesobuthus songi Loureno, Qi & Zhu 2005, described from the southern region of Pulan, Xizang (Tibet), China led us to accommodate this species in the genus Hottentotta Birula, as a new combination Hottentotta songi (Loureno, Qi & Zhu 2005). © 2010 The American Arachnological Society. Source

Romanenko S.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Volobouev V.,Musum National dHistoire Naturelle
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2012

Rodents are, taxonomically, the most species-rich mammalian order. They display a series of special genomic features including the highest karyotypic diversity, frequent occurrence of complex intraspecies chromosome variability, and a variety of unusual chromosomal sex determination mechanisms not encountered in other mammalian taxa. Rodents also have an abundance of cytochemically heterogeneous heterochromatin. There are also instances of extremely rapid karyotype reorganization and speciation not accompanied by significant genetic differentiation. All these peculiarities make it clear that a detailed study of rodent genomic evolution is indispensable to understand the mode and tempo of mammalian evolution. The aim of this review is to update the data obtained by classical and molecular cytogenetics as well as comparative genomics in order to outline the range of old and emerging problems that remain to be resolved. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Sueur J.,Musum National dHistoire Naturelle | Windmill J.F.C.,University of Strathclyde | Robert D.,University of Bristol
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2010

Many animal species acoustically communicate at the same place and time generating complex acoustic environments. However, the acoustic parameter space is usually structured, with each species emitting identifiable signals. While signal partitioning has been reported, very few analyses include the mechanical spectral response of auditory organs. The loud chorus generated by three cicadas (Cicada orni, Cicadatra atra, and Lyristes plebejus) was studied. The vibration pattern of L. plebejus shows traveling waves as previously observed in Ctra. atra. The spectral properties of both calling songs and tympanal auditory systems primarily indicate that each species uses its own frequency band. Male tympanal membranes (TMs) are tuned to their own song's dominant frequency, except for C. orni, which is sensitive to the lowest frequency band of its song. In contrast, female TMs are broadly tuned to the male songs. Ctra. atra females differ by tuning to frequencies slightly higher than the male song. Hence, acoustic space partitioning occurs for both emitter and receiver, but does not seem to fully preclude interference risk as some spectral overlap exists. In addition to the local physical ecology of each species, selective attention to conspecific signals is likely to be enhanced by further mechanical and neuronal processing. © 2010 Acoustical Society of America. Source

Dubey B.,National Analysis Center | Dubey B.,Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology | Meganathan P.R.,National Analysis Center | Meganathan P.R.,Mississippi State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Herpetology | Year: 2012

Unresolved phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily Natricinae continue to exist, including the position of the genus Xenochrophis. In the present study, two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, 12S rRNA) and one nuclear gene (c-mos) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Natricinae, with a special emphasis on the position of the genus Xenochrophis. Two statistical methods, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Both the mitochondrial and nuclear datasets produced sufficiently resolved and congruent topologies. Our findings placed the genus Xenochrophis within Natricinae consistently with strong nodal support. Findings also revealed a close association between two Indian natricid snakes, Xenochrophis piscator and Xenochrophis schnurrenbergeri. However Xenochrophis vittatus, from Indonesia, does not cluster with the remaining species of Xenochrophis, suggesting a nonmonophyly of this genus. Overall Natricinae was found to be monophyletic because the two genera, Psammodynastes pulverulentus and Amplorhinus multimaculatus, are now known to be members of the Lamprophiidae. This study also finds a close relationship between the endemic species Lycognathophis seychellensis with the African natricids. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Source

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